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Figures 198 a.nd 199, 0", dorsal and ventral views
Figures 200 and 201, Q, dorsal and ventral views

A, Q, genital area. B to E, 9, genital apron, outline and profile; all unengorged; E dried, contracted specimen.

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HYAL(HM.A HUSSAINI Sharif, 1928.
(Figures 198 to 201)
HUSSAIN'S INDIAN HYALCMMA

AND RDMRKS ON THE SUBGENUS HYALWIMINA

Special note should be made of the subgenus Eyalommina, es. tablished by Schulze (1919) for the new species . ice haloides from the Red Sea area. Subsequently, Schulze (l'§36] pgaces H. lewisi from Tanganyika (and Kenya) in this subgenus and Sharif

(FEE and I936) included _I_{. kumari and Q. hussaini from India.
These are discussed below.

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The criterion proposed by Schulze for this subgenus is the absence of subanal shields.

With regard to the so_caJ.led ‘H. rhi ice haloides", it has been our experience during field collecting £3 study of Hyalomma

material from the Near East, Asia Minor, Arabia, North Africa, and tropical Africa, that weak, poorly developed, apparently undernourished, runts o_f a_ny H alomma species frequently lack subanal shields. Such individufis _may be art of a series in which some gg typical _o_f: 3 common species sucfgg R. excavatum) and others, usually smaller and weaker, conformlq _’r_.h_e same _s_@_ Ffis in mor holo ical characters, except that the lack subanal sEield_. t as so Een noted from personal ield experience E from series in British Museum (Natural History) collections, especially those of the late Professor Buxton from Iraq and Palestine, that when nymphs are removed from a bird, lizard,

or smfll mammal and placed in a vial to molt, the resultant adults, obviously affected by abnormal, artificial conditions, are frequently frail and lack subanal shields. This feature

is the rule rather than the exception among adults reared from nymphs that have become overgrown by the host skin (see below

and page 41.7) .

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Schulze (l932C) referred to "H alomma (H alommina) rhi i... cephaloides“ as a "half endoparasite" (E compar it wi

Ambl onnna nymphs to support a morphological theory). The concep. tion of a separate species with unique "half..endoparasitic" habits

is not supported by field and laboratory observations. In several yalomma species observed in Egypt, long,..feeding immature stages become overgrown by the host skin. Poorly developed adult "H alom. minas” result from these nymphs. If removed early enough, suc 'riy1nEs may molt into typical though frail adults of recognized species with or without subanal shields. Other larvae and nymphs that attach to the ears, which do not react to the engorging

ticks by producing a large amount of tissue, usually develop normally.

On the basis of many such variants among specimens of ii. excavatum examined for the present study it is apparent that

UeIpy|s (19498) synonym of I_I. rhipicephaloides under _I_i. exca_

vatum is correct.

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H. lewisi Schulze, 1936, from tropical Africa is the result of similar misinterpretation of H. truncatum by Schulze and his students.

In the present collection, a few specimens of H. tnmcatum are poorly developed and lack subanal shields. The§e are s1m1 a.r to specimens (in the Rocky Mountain Laboratory) determined by Schulze as H. lewisi from Kenya and Tanganyika. There is no question bur? tHat H. lewisi is a synonym of H. tnmcatum. Delpy (1949B), probably inadvertently listed H. lewisi as a synonym of H. excavatum. Kratz (1940) retained H. lewisi in the "subgenT1s H ~'§_[omm1na" even though he noted that "some spec. imens retained su5an§.I shields while others lacked them".

With regard to H. hussaini Sharif, 1928, the Rocky Mountain Laboratory col1ectio?1s contain enough constant specimens of this species (described below) from India to indicate beyond a doubt that H. hussaini is a valid species. It is coincidental that this ‘species conforms to the criteria proposed for the subgenus Qalonxmina; H. hussaini rather than H. rhi ice haloides might,

t ere ore, be considered as the type_spec1es oi: tH1s subgenus. The absence of subanal shields apparently has become a genetically.

established character in Indian populations. As stated below, other constant male and female characters also validate this spe..

cies. Thus, recognition of the subgenus H alommina would be justi_ fied. It is, however, likely that the absence of subanal shields

is not a genetic character in Hyalomma populations of Africa and the Near East.

Conclusions on the subgenus H alommina may be summarized as follows: Such an entity apparently does exist, but criteria proposed for it apply to a species (H. hussaini and possibly H. kumari) different from that origifially poposed as the type for thls subgenus (H. rhi ice haloides), this latter species being merely a morphologic varian of H. excavatum.

These conclusions are based on study of series of preserved specimens, on field rearing of specimens, and on laboratory ob. servations of wild_caught subdermal specimens from rodents.

More formal laboratory studies on the phenomenon of loss of subanal shields among other species are indicated.

Sharif (1928) also described H. hussaini brevi unctata and H. kumari from Indian populations on the Basis of slight dif_ ferences in color, lateral grooves and tarsi. No specimens of these forms have been available for the present study.

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Sharif (1928) lists specimens of H. hussaini from the fol. lowing India areas: Bihar, Orissa, Cefitral Provinces and Madras and Bombay Presidencies. The subspecies brevippctata is listed from the same areas as well as from Beng . _. 1 is also known from the first localities and Assam and Pungab. Hosts are cattle, buffalos, horses, goats, sheep, dogs, tiger, and various kinds of deer.

Sharif (1930) illustrated a specimen of H. hussaini with unequal adanal shields. Material from Portugese India has been reported (Santos Dias 1954-T).

Both sexes of H. hussaini have such unique norphological characters that it is difficult to comprehend why Delpy (l949B) placed this species in synonymy under H. excavatu. Sharif's (1928) original description is excellefit as are the illustrations of the male. This sex is characterized by large, broad adanal shields, absence of subanal shields; bright, shiny scutum with long, pronounced lateral grooves; long, narrow posteromedian

grooves, shorter and wider paramedian grooves; rarity of punctations that are widely scattered over scutal surface but usually arranged in lines bordering the posterior grooves, and small size (less than 3.00 m. long and 2.00 mm. wide).

The female also has a smooth, shiny scutum with few punctations, those present are similar to those of the male. Porose areas of the § females at hand are notably large and distinct. The genital apron g is uique in that it is divided by a medioposterior depression that is either a narrow, median, posterior groove or expanded posterior. ly to include the posterior periphery. In outline the genital apron is subrectangular to subtriangular, in profile it is more or less gradually depressed posteriorly. The female size unengorged is

only slightly greater than that of the male.

7'

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