« PreviousContinue »
Figures 202 and 203, <3‘, dorsal. and ventral views A, spiracular plate, dromedarii. B, spiracular plate, Li.
Specimen from camel, Central Iraq. Hoogstraal Collection from Dr. G. H. Hall.
For 53 illustrations, see PLATE XVIIC PLATE LVIII
nmmm scnutzm Olenev, 1931(3).
THE NEAR EAS1'Er’.N CAEZEL HYALQ-MA
H. schulzei a hyalormna of restricted geographical range, appears from Tnale characters to be a giant relative of H. dromedarii. The female genital apron, however, differs so greatly-from 1.555 of H. dromedarii that the relationship of these two species does not appear to E actually so close as previously considered. It is also likely that females associated by Olenev with males of H. schulzei in the original description of the species included some specimens of H. dromedarii.
The geographic range of H. schulzei extends from Iran (Olenev l93lA,B, Delpy 1937) and Mgh&i~s 1951.), through Iraq (Hoogstraal, ms.), and Palestine (Schulze 19360; Kratz 191.0, Adler and Feldman..I'h1hsam 1945,1948) into Sinai and the Eastern and Western Deserts of Egypt some 200 miles west of Alexandria (Hoogstraal, ms.). It is absent in Russia (Pomerantzev 1950) and is not represented in the present collections from Libya, Yemen, coastal East Africa, or Turkey. 1
Hosts of adults mentioned by all authors and represented in our collections are camels, and Pomerantzev (1950) adds cattle. Hosts of immature stages have not previously been determined. In Sinai and Egypt (Hoogstraal, nun), nymphs (reared to adults) have been found on hares, Le c nsis subsp., and fat sandrats, Psamzm ‘s o. obesus. Unf , new y mo ed adults have been taken from E. rows of jirds, Meriones 2. crassus.
The male is large and when engorged measures up to 8.00 mm. in lengh and 7.00 nm. in width. The extreme width is due to con. siderable lateral stretching of the integument during feeding; mu engorged specimens are approximately 4.00 mm. wide. The scutum of specimens at hand and previously described has parallel lateral mrgins while those of H. dromedarii are usually convexly arched. The palpi of available specimens are notably short and robust; the parma is subrectangular; in H. dromedarii it is typically tri_ angular. The most notable distincti on Etween the two species is
the short, almost tailless, female.type spiracular plate of the male 1!. schulzei that is usually surrounded by nmnerous hairs. This type of spir' acular late is found in the male of no other species in the genus. An approach to this spiracular form occurs in "H. scupense ; see page l.l8_.7 In other characters, these two species are similar.
Females of these two species are also superficially similar but the genital apron of H. schulzei is considerably different
and the scutum (of aarailfile specimens) is slightly nnre elongate
than that of H. dromedarii. The genital apron is subrectangular with slightly convex anterior and posterior margins and rounded junctures; this convexity is increased with extreme engorgement. In profile, the apron is flat when mmengorged but after feeding it protrudes and is markedly depressed posteriorl . The female is illustrated herein in the APPENDIX (PLATE XIXC inasmuch as distinguishing features were recognized only near the termination of the present study after other illustrations had been numbered. Delpy and Adler and Feldman_Muhsam did not describe the female genital apron of the meagre amount of material available to them. The short, wide scutal outline with a bluntly rounded posterior margin, as illustrated, is similar in all available specimens
and corresponds to that delineated by Pomerantzev (1950). Other workers however, have shown it as more elongate and with the posterior margin gradually converging to a fairly narrow point.
Figures 204 and 205, d, dorsal and ventral views
A;-Hg, genital area, unengorged. B to H, 9, genital apron, outline. B C, unengorged. D and E, slightly engorged. F to H, moderately engorged. J, 6‘, Leg III, dorsolateral view to show enamelling.
H. turanicum, is considered by South African and French work. era as a sfipecies of H. rufi s and by Russian workers as a sub. species of H. nor? um = _. umbeum of Pomerantzev).
The specific entity of H. abcrum has been demonstrated in laboratory rearings by Theiler, w kindly provided material for the present study and has provided a manuscript (Theiler 1956) on distribution and eoolog in South Africa for use herein in advance of her own publication.
H. turanicum (- H. abrum) appears to have been introduced into the EB South African Karroo on Persian sheep. It is un. known elsewhere in Africa. Persian sheep were originally intro. duced into South Africa in 1872, having been purchased from a ship from the Mediterranean then anchored in Table Bay (Lounsbury 19043). Subsequently others were imported from Aden. The exact locality from whence any of these importations originated does not appear definitely to be known. A number of flocks were scattered about South Africa at the time (1904) Lounsbury reported their high degree of immunity to heartwater.
H. rufi s labrmn was briefly described by Delpy (l949A) from mater1§I rear rom fennles from Karroo sheep sent to him by Theiler. The source of this mterial. has been identified in correspondence with Dr. Delpy and Dr. Theiler; it is not found in the literature. Subsequently, Delpy (l94‘13,l952) indicated that H. rufifis abrum is a poorly lmown, two host tick, that it also occurs in ran, and that it is not of considerable im. portance in the transmission of bovine theileriasis, Theileria annulata. This species occurs in southern Russia (Pomerantzev