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This specimen, which cannot be assigned to any described S‘l.11L species, is the only one of Ixodes rasus actually known from the

Sudan.

King (1926) believed that two other ticks that had engorged on him, one within the nostril the other behind the knee, while he was in the Yei River area of Equatoria Province might have been

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King (1926) listed Ixodes rasus from Er Renk and Kaka, Upper Nile Province. The Er Rani? specimen, now in Sudan Government col.lections, is a female of Ixodes nairobiensis. It was taken from a domestic dog on 2 July I%',_by H. H. Kfig. Nuttall evidently saw the specimen some time before he described Ixodes nairobiensis (1916) because the label with this specimen reads "Ixodes rasus. NuttaJl's note: Agrees with cavi%p1_1s, but scutum longer‘. The Kaka specimen is a poorly preserve nymph that appears to be I. rasus but cannot definitely be assigned to this species. "

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DISTRIBUTION

The actual range (and identity) of subspecies of Ixodes rasus is unknown (see REMARKS below). The species is especially numerous in many parts of West and Central Africa and locally common in East Africa. Material on which the few records of South African

specimens are based should be restudied.

w1:s'r AFRICA: NIGERIA (P661-66 1929). 1111211011 wzzsr AFRICA (Neumann I399,I901,191l. Rousselot 1951,1953B. Villiers 1955). GOLD COAST (Nuttall and Warburton 1911. NuttaJ.1 1916. Stewart

1936).

cmrmt 11111101. FERNANDO PO (Schulze 191.311). cmzaoons (Neumann I899,I9UI,l911. Ziemann 1912A. Nuttall 1916. Jojot 1921. Rageau 1953. Schulze 1943A. Rageau 1951,1953. Dezest 1953. See HOSTS below). FRENCH EHUATGKIAL AFRICA (Bequaert 1931 refers the type locality to French Equatorial Africa not to Belgian Congo. Fiasson 1943B. Rousselot 1951,l953B$. RIO MUNI (Nuttall 1916. Schulze 191.31). mam couco (See French Equa. torial Africa above. Neumann l899,l901,1911. Nuttall 1916. Nuttall ad Warburton 1916. Schwetz l927C,l932. Schouteden 1927. Bequasrt l93QA,B,l931. Schoenaers 1951A. Rousselot l95l,l953B. Theiler and Robinson 1954).

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KENYA (Neawe 1912. Nuttall 1916. Anderson 1924A. Lewis 1931A,B,C,1939A. See HOSTS b616w). ucmm (Nuttall and Warbur.. ton 1911. Mettam 1992,1933. See nosrs b616w). TANGANYIKA (Neumann 1899,l901,1907C,1910B,191l. Mcrstatt 1913. Bequaert 19901. Reichenow 191.J.B. Schulze 191.31).

SOUTHERN AFRICA: somrmszm RHODESIA (Nuttall 1916). [mulch

01-* ~6m 1929A,1932B. c6616y 1931.. Some or 8.1.]. of this material refers actually to Ixodes pilosus: Arthur, cor.

respondencei7

HOSTS

The range of hosts of adult Ixodes rasus inclues a large variety of animals from mice and elephant shrews (small insectivores) to leopards, large antelopes, and domestic dogs. It is difficult to determine whether this tick displays predilection for any group of mammals. The picture for immature_stage host preferences is equally uncertain. Whether individual "subspecies" have characteristic preferences differing from each other remains to be demonstrated.

Published reports of adults and immature stages found together on a single host are categorized below by associated stage and sex for what they may be worth in eventually answering questions of host preferences and biology of this species.

Sta e or sex not s cified: Domestic cattle from Uganda leopard and_ddm§§tlE_dog from Gold Coast (Nuttall and Uarbut6n

1911). Domestic sheep from Kenya (Lewis 1931B).

Criceto s emini (giant forest rat), Crocidura sp. (shrew), Croci ura manni, Hy55mys univittatus (back_striped mouse), Le ada

musc Ol es (pygmy mouse), Lemnisco s striatus (striped grass. mouse), Hattus rattus (house rat), gaterillus acilus an elus (gerbil), Thyzonomys swinderianus (cane rat) (éearse l92§§_f¥5m

Nigeria).

Buffalo, blue duiker forest or red duiker, and domestic cattle (Mettam 1932, from Uganda). Black duiker (Villiers 1955, from Ivory Coast). Warthog (Ziemann 19121., from Cameroons). Cane-rat (Schwetz 19270, from Belgian Congo). Okapi (Schouteden 1927, from Belgian Congo). Impala (Bedford 1932B and Cooley 1934, from South Africa). Tree hyrax, Dendrohyzax (Schoenaers 1951A, from Belgian Congo).

Larvae alone: Common on small and large birds in Kenya (state_ ment EHBEIH 53 checked for accuracy) (Lewis 1939A).

N hs alone: Bdeogale mongoose (Schulze 1943A, from Tanga_ nyik.-JEPAT. an_(N_tu tall 1916, from Ethiopia). "Antilope brune" (Bequaert_l93l, from Belgian Congo).

Females with larvae: Okapi (Schwetz 19270, from Belgian Congo).

Females with larvae gag n hs: Ak?ley's sui or dwarf antelope, Nesotragps mosc us Egeleyi, from Kenya; this female

tick correspon s more closely to escription of Ixodes rasus cumulatim ctatus than any other specimens that I have seen). Mole rat, lachyoryctes sp. (H legit at Njoro, Kenya).

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Females with n h : Water chevrotain, giant elephant shrew, giant forest rat, vgfi pig, mongoose and domestic dog (Schulze 1943!, from Tanganyika. and Cameroons). Hyrax Procavia sp.) (Bedford l929A,l932B, from South Africa). "Uhi e mongoose" (specimens seen by HH, from Cameroons).

Females alone: Domestic dog (Schulze 1943A, from Tan anyika; Rageau I§§I, from Cameroons; Nuttall 1916, from Gold Coast . Domestic cattle (Nuttall a.nd Warburton 1911, from Uganda*). Domestic goat (Nuttall 1916, from Belgian Congo).

Tree by-rax, Dendro ax arboreus (Bequaert 1931, from Belgian Congo). Hyrax ('2 ocavia ~9ZE, from Belgian Congo).

Giant forest rat (cricefi s) (Schulze 1943A, from Rio Muni; others Ugfia). C

seen by ISIH, from rass 1('at (Arvicanthis a ssinicus( nubilans a.nd groove_toothed rat Otomys tropicalis e OI1lS specimens from the latter host closely correspond to descrii pti on of Ixodes rasus cumulatim unctatus (HH le it at Njoro, Kern/a). Duiker (Bequaert $35.5, from éianganyifia). erval from Kenya, pa.ngolin and bush pigs from Cameroons (Nuttall l9l6). Leopard (Nuttall et al 1911, from Cameroons*). Large gr mongoose (Her stes ca.fT§r')_

and slender mongoose (Myonax cauui (Bedford 1 , rom_§F1Tt"E Africa .

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Females and males: "Man and domestic dog‘ (Nuttall it al, from C-3Td'C3a?E¥). Hyrax (Neumann 1899, from French Equatorqi-a'L Africa -. not Belgian Congo according to Bequaert 1931); bush pig (Schulze 1943A, from Tanganyika); leopard (Nuttall 1916, from Southern Rhodesia; others seen by EB, from Kenya). Pangolin (Specimens seen by HE, from Uganda).

Males alone: Hare (Sudan record above). Caged chimpanzee (Specimens seen by HR, from Cameroons).

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*Stages or sex not reported in literature cited, but determined from Nuttall collection in British Museum (Natural History).

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