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5. Dorsal and ventral periphery of distinct
quadrangular "cells". Postpalpal hairs
Dorsal and ventral periphery finely
Figures 15 and 16, Argas persicus
Figures 21 and 22, Argas vespertilionis
DORSAL PERIPHERAL DIFFERENTIATION (odd numbered figures) AND LATERAL
INTEGUMENT (even numbered figures) OF ARGAS SPECIES.
Note especially the presence of a lateral suture in Figures 16,18,20 and 22
and its absence in Figures 24 and 26.
Figures 27 and 28, Argas persicus, e, dorsal and ventral views
"Throughout the Sudania (King 1926). In addition to the above listed Equatoria Province records, two localities have been published in the literature and I have seen specimens from the following places:
Upper Nile: Malakal (HH).
Bahr El Ghazal: Wau (SVS; HH).
Blue Nile: Kosti, Wad el Nail near Singa, Wad Madani (all swC). **Blue Nile Districtsi (Archibald 1923).
Khartoum: Khartoum (SCC, SVS, Gordon College collection, HH). Omdurman (HH). See also Balfour (1906,1907, 1908B, 1909,1910,191.11, B,C,D,E,G,1912) for spirochete studies on A. persicus from Khartoum.
Northern: Dongola (Neumann 1901). Wadi Halfa, Abu Hamed, at bara, Ed Damer (HH).
*In South Africa, called "The Fowl Tampania (Theiler 1952A,B).
DISTRIBUTION A. persicus is now established in most parts of the world between ZOON. and 40°S, as a result of transportation of poultry. In Siberia, this tick occurs even farther north than 550N. (olenev
As an example of the fowl tick's long range spread, it is said to have been introduced into New Zealand from America, Its initial appearance in many parts of the world is believed to have been during early Persian conquests though the species did not necessarily originate in Persia (Robinson and Davidson 1913A).
Once introduced, the fowl tick often spreads quickly and widely, as it has done in Argentina where it became a common pest within sixteen years after first reported (lahille and Joan 1931, Roveda 1940, Lucas 1940). In the United States, after having first been collected in 1872 in southwestern Texas, its dispersion has been gradual and orderly (Parman 1926). In other areas it occurs only sporadically. For instance, in Madagascar, A. persicus is said to be restricted to the western coastal lowlands and absent from the central uplands (Blck 1935,1948A,C). In Mauritius it is not common or widely spread and seldom appears in large numbers (Moutia and Mamet 1947).
The following records are for Africa, Arabia, and outlying islands only.
NORTH AFRICA: EGYPT (Savignyi 1826. Audouin 1827. Taschen berg 1874.
Neumann 1901,1911. Nuttall et al 1908. Hirst 1914. Mason 1916. Carpano 1929A,B,1935. El Dardiry 1945. Said 1948. Fahmy 1952. Hoogstraal 1952A. Floyd and Hoogstraal 1956. Hurlbut 1956. Taylor, Work, Hurlbut, and Rizk 1956). LIBYA (Zanon 1919. Franchini 1926,1929. Tonelli-Rondelli 1932A ,D. Gaspare 1933. Stella 1938C). TUNISIA (Galli-Valerio 1909A,1911B,1914. Comte and Bouquet 1909. Blaizot 1910. Neumann 1911. Langeron 1912, 1921). ALGERIA (Neumann 1901,1911. Brumpt and Foley 1908. Edm. Sergent and Foley 1910,1922,1939. Hindle 1912. Robinson and Davidson 1913A. Donatien 1925. Catanei and Parrot 1926, Foley 1929. Clastrier 1936). MOROCCO (Delano' 1923. Delano' and Ielaurin 1923).
WEST AFRICA: NIGERIA (Absence of A. persicus: Macfie and Johnston 1914. Presence of this tick: "Mettam 1973). GOLD COAST