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mans (mans) PERSICUS (Oken, 1818).
(Figures l5,l6,27 a.nd 28)
mm POULTRY mans at Four. TICK*.

I. N 9 0’ EQUATGRIA PROVINCE RLEIKRDS 1 Kapoeta domestic chicken Jul (sec) 19 Torit domestic chickens Dec 681. 96 Imurok domestic chickens Jan [.8 2 Juba domestic chickens Dec 17 ll 9 Torit poultry house Dec 12 4 2 Juba poultry house Aug


"Throughout the Sudan"' (King 1926). In addition to the abovelisted Equatoria Province records, two localities have been published in the literature and I have seen specimens from the following places:

uggr Nile: Malakal (HI-I).

Bahr El Ghazal: wen (svs,- HH).

Blue Nile: Kosti, Wad el Nail near Singa, Had Medani (all scn). "B1ne'N{1_I5'i‘e stricts" (Archibald 19Q3).

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Khartoum: Khartoum (sec, SVS, Gordon College collection, EH). ennui-nnT(HH‘). See also Balfour (l906,l907,l908B,l909,l9lO,l9l]A, B,C,D,E,G,l9l2) for spirochete studies on A. Ersieus from Khartoum.

Northern: Dongola (nennenn 1901). wsni Halfa, Abu mined, At. bara, E Damer (HI-I).

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A. rsicus is now established in mst parts of the world between E&N. and l.0°S. as a result of transportation of poultry. In Siberia, this tick occurs even farther north than 55°N. (Olenev 1926 1927). In Argentina, 38°S. is its southern limit (Roveda 191.0). As an example of the fowl tick's long ra.nge spread, it is said to have been introduced into New Zealand from America. Its initial appearance in many parts of the world is believed to have been during early Persian conquests though the species did not necessarily originate in Persia (Robinson and Davidson 1913A).

Once introduced, the fowl tick often spreads quickly and widely, as it has done in Argentina where it became a common pest within sixteen years after first reported (lahille and Jean 1931, Roveda 1940, Lucas 191.0). In the United States, after having first been collected in 1872 in southwestern Texas, its dispersion has been ‘gradual and orderly" (Parmn 1926). In other areas it occurs only sporadically. For instance, in Madagascar, A. rsicus is said to be restricted to the western coastal lowlands a sent ri-en the central uplands (Btek l935,1948A,C). In Mauritius it is

not common or widely s ead and seldom appears in large numbers (Moutia and Mamet 191.7?

The following records are for Africa, Arabia, and outlying islands only.

NORTH AFRICA: EGYPT (Savignyi 1826. Audouin 1827. Taschen. berg 18%. Neunmm 1901,1911. Nuttall et al 1908. Hirst 1911.. Mason 1916. Carpam 1929A,B,1935. El nEd'F~y 1945. Said 191.8. Fahmy 1952. Hoogstraal 1952A. Floyd and Hoogstraal 1956. Hurlbut 1956. Taylor, Work, Hurlbut, a.nd Rizk 1956). LIBYA (Zéanon 1919. Franchini l926,l92‘E. Tonelli..Ronde1li l932A,D. Gaspare 1933. Stella 1938c). TUNISIA (Galli.-.Valerio 1909A,l9llB,19l1.. Comte and Bouquet 1909. Blaizot 1910. Neumann 1911. Langeron 1912, 1921). AILERIA (Neumann 1901,1911. Brumpt and Foley 1908. Edm. Sergent and Foley 1910,1922 ,1939. Hindle 1912. Robinson and Davidson 1913A. Donatien 1925. Catanei and Parrot 1926. Foley

1929. Clastrier 1936). Mcnocco ('é 1923. ne1ene'é and Ielaurin 1923).

WEST AFRICA: NIGERIA (Absence of B. rsicus: Macfie a.nd JemieI9flZ_ten . Presence of this tick: Mettam 3). com COAST

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1911. Robinson and Davidson 1913A. Bedford l920,l9Q6,l927,l932B, 1994. Du Plessis 1932. Robinson and Coles 1932. Bedford and Coles 1933. Bedford and cm: 1934,1939. Mgnnig and Coles 1931., l936,l939,l940. Coles 1933,1945. Cooley 1934. des Ligneris 1939. Mitscherlich 1941. R. du Toit l942B,C,l947A,B. Gericke and Coles 1950. Annecke and Quinn 1952).

OUTIXING ISLANDS: MAUITIUS (As_A. mauritianus: Gucrin. Meneville I3§:1§Z§. Neumann 1911. De Charmoy I914,l9l5,l9Q5. Moutia and Mamet 1947). MADAGASCAR (Recorded by B'5ck 1935,1948A, C,l949. Millot 1948 states that A. rsicus does not occur on Madagascar but Hack seems to have-de¥§nIte evidence that it does. Hoogstraal 195311). REUNION (Gillard 1947,1949). SEYCHELIES (Millet 1948). Z-ZAIEIBAR: ?No records._7

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A. pgrsicus in all stages is chiefly a_parasite of chickens. Ducks, geese, 1n'keys, ami infrequently pigeons, are attacked. This parasite often becomes so numerous in fowl houses that the birds die from exsanguination. Canaries are sometimes attacked, and in South Africa young ostrichs have been killed from the vol. ume of blood lost to these ticks.

Wild birds may be infested if they construct large, numerous, or fairly permanent nests in the vicinity of human activities. The question of infestation of other wild birds and of mammals is a most uncertain one. Although the fowl argas does parasitize man on occasion, the frequency and fierceness of these attacks have been fancifully exaggerated and enhanced to the point that it might even seem advisable to exterminate Africa's chickens rather than subject mankind on this continent to the scourge of his fouls‘ argasid parasite.

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Rookeries of the buff.backed heron, Bubulcus ibis ibis,in parks in and near Cairo (Hoogstraal 1952A, £53 heron roo ries in South Africa are heavily infested (Theiler, correspondence). In the Nile Barrage Park near Cairo, literally tens of thousands of


fowl ticks in all stages can be found in crevices and under bark of any large fig tree in which herons roost a.nd nest.

In Palcistan, Abdussalam and Sarwar (1953) found frequent para... sitism of vultures and common herons in sixteen kinds of trees in which these birds nest. Other birds and palm squirrels also perch inthese trees, but only a. young kite was found infested. (Whether smller birds and squirrels were examined for ticks is not clear from the report). On trees with relatively smooth bark and few cracks, ticks extended down the trunk almost to the ground, but on those with cracked bark they concentrated chiefly in the upper branches near the perches of their hosts. (In the Cairo area, rough.barked trees harbor tremendous tick populations from near the roots to the crown). The incidence of ticks in trees harboring vultures and herons was much higher than it was in nearby chicken houses.

Specimens have occasionally been reported from isolated nests of wild birds and on ground birds such as quail. Howard (1908) recorded the secretary bird and Bedford (1934) the guinea fowl as wild hosts. Theiler (unpublished) inform me of the following South African records: wattled crane, hadada ibis, and pelican. King (1926) reported the guinea fowl, buff..backed heron, and crow as wild hosts of the larval stage in the Sudan. Specimens from guinea fowl at Khartoum (SGC) probably came from zoological garden hosts.

Identification of larvae from wild birds that construct isolated nests and that do not live close to human habitations should be regarded with suspicion if these larvae have not been identified by a contemporary expert in argasids. Larvae of related species closely resemble those of A. rsicus. Wild bird parasites are so poorly known that the presence 0 argasid larvae on them should be a. hint to consider rare or poorly known tick species before concluding definitely that those found are A. rsicus. The mouthparts of larvae pulled from birds are usually Ho~ss extreme cau. tion is exercised a.nd the body characters are frequently obscured by engorgement so that it is difficult to identify the mteria-1.

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Apparently the only authentic rqaort for the fowl tick from a wild nnmmal is a note of three adults from a Texas jack rabbit shot in 1906 (Hooker, Bishopp, and Wood 1912).

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