« PreviousContinue »
U r Nile: Akobo Post and Melut (mules; $C). Bor (cattle; $0). an (pigs and goats; SIS). Malakal (donkeys, sheep and cattle; HH; cattle and donkeys; Balfour 1911.1’).
Blue Nile: Singa (native goat with surago disease; $6). Wad IE;-ni-(Erase, donkeys, goats, sheep and cattle; HH, SGC). Roseires (cattle; $6). Sennar (donkey; $6).
Kassala: Abu Gamal (goats; $6). Kassala (horses, goats, and cattle; SVS).
Khartoum: Khartoum (goats from Meshra, SGC; goats, sheep,
horses, asses, and donkeys; HH). (Introduced into Khartomn on cattle and donkeys from Malakal: Balfour l9llF).
R. evertsi evertsi is widely distributed throughout the Ethiopian Faunal Neaon (including the mountains of Yemen, south. western Lrabia; Hoogstraal, ms.). It is not found in very dry regions of Southwest Africa (Theiler and Robinson 1954) where it is replaced by the banded-legged subspecies mimeticus. The two subspecies do occur together, however, in the savannah of northern Angola and range through the southwestern Congo to the Ubangi savannah. near the Sudan border. The typical form is re. duced in numbers or is absent in large areas of the Somalilands and in northern Nyasaland, but in these places it is not replaced by the banded..1egged variety. It also appears to be absent in areas of West Africa.
wrsr AFRICA: nmnm (Mettam 1940,1950. Unsworth 191.9, 1952.TTTm es 951). TOGO (Ziemann 1905). com coasr (Stewart 1933). Fmmcn wnsr AFRICA (Girard and Rousselot 191.5. Rousselot l951,l953B).
'(v£‘ret -I°'['.I°T-LL 'z£6I awe-rm‘: ‘zvet‘szet‘tzet agar ‘z.zet‘ozet
trams °7't6I Imaa we Svvwva ‘£0611 qwx) YISEGOHH mmnmos
'(‘796I Hosrrtqva rm -rattan ‘vset @‘=‘-airman 'L76‘[‘L£6I Imus‘! '7‘lI6‘[ mans rm slaqwqo 'ztet swan) VISICDHH mmmnn
‘(Q9611 wtevaa °H‘796‘[‘O‘EI€96I‘CIZS6I‘V8‘76‘[‘8L‘76I 9'9‘F(I svwas ‘atset <>-Itawet '8£‘76I -1°‘[".I°q.L ‘azvet wdflmz '§tet v-wutto ea , '8‘[‘[6‘[ ‘ET?’-¥'J.11I~I ‘ttet‘soet Q-gqnan '[.68‘[ wmrnan) anbtawvzom '(Qg6‘[ sum esnog Aq peistt st snotqemtm K'.].8T.1'8A £3 AIEQ :e-ion ’€1)§6'[ Sam =<>w=s ‘ozet tnawm mom =vo1a1v mmrmos
'(£96I I1°9I‘F!'l ‘ever °P‘['§A mm awqvmaa ‘azvet wimnz '£I‘T['I6'[‘076I H°"°q°‘F°H °9€6‘[ ttw-mo ‘§£6'[ strum '£eet melon °Y€?6I afivt-raw‘: '€I6I '-nvzsaow ‘ztet swan '§06‘[ awn ‘ttet‘aotet‘oz.oet‘toet mmmvrt) vxtmvorm. ‘(vset -wtfivt ‘vset P-w.mto '£Set‘:n9et ‘6761I‘O‘H8*l6I rwattn '9£6I tavqvtw-mo mm Human °€€6I‘Z€6'[ mmaw ‘eaet r1<_>_‘+_tn_g<1 'Y€?6‘[ 939';-I°A°'I ‘zzet lawman ‘net wean ‘ttet TB 18 em-rs ‘votet ~1°'[I°IIJ. ‘v) vcmvon ‘(£§et Kattn °£S6I "°$‘[‘FM °'[96'[ K19-mas rm ‘z9et‘t9et ama ‘avet -Ieqen ‘azvet wivmz '8£6I I1'°3'FT['flW ‘L£6‘[ SIM‘: Pm mafia:-Iaqzva ‘9€6I S4-reqaa ‘vset uosvna we Kwqnva '89£6'[“7€6‘[‘€€6I Kwqnaa 'z£et -I°>[‘l‘8fl ‘zeet av-mam-Kassv-Ia ‘£I‘V6€6'[“7€6‘[‘EIZ€6I‘O‘8 ‘TlI£6‘[ SW1 ‘ztet 8.‘-van ‘zaet‘aotet‘oz.oet vrrwman) VMIIDI
'9£6I tttavvvu-tttwvt) auv'n'mms nv:t'm.1 °((I€§6'[ 1??-I'4$3°°H)
amrttm-os mamas: ‘(o*ret‘ve£et P'[‘[°'>.S '9£et <>-rm ‘éeet
‘flZ€6I tttavwu-tttwot ‘aezet WIQOW-Yd) vrmmm ‘(evet a-rm rm <>tw1BI.c1 '6€6I twwu '076‘[‘Y6€6‘[ PI'[°'¥S) vtaomm
‘(avset tw-rgsfigog '9zet ‘T‘[6‘[‘806‘[ Bum °H‘.:IT[6‘[‘906T moms) mvcms =vonmv tsvz
‘(vset qfiwque-MA mm '(I'796‘[ sate wnws ‘vset
Hosvtqva WP -I°'['§°q.I. ‘a£§et‘t§et wtasmou ‘a‘vt9et Siwvawvs
'976‘[ -wwwa "[€6I‘EIO€6I '-ummbaa ‘ezet '4~1'9I'[°O rm mamas 'z£et‘o‘a‘vz.zet menses) Iannun-vcmvnu mm oonoo mama
'(Z96I qwonsun 'EI€96‘[“[96‘[ 4<>t@=‘=m<>u) VOIHJY maotvnm nouns ‘(gggel 'l°I99$T1°1-I ‘EI‘Y€96I“[96‘[ rwafivu ‘azvet wdnmz) snooamvo =voIaav '1VH.LbHO
NYASILAND (Neave 1912. De Meza 19181. Absent in northern area: Wilson 1945,1953).
SOUTHUEI AFRICA (Dsnitz 1905. Howard 1908. Tromsdorff 1913,1914. Warburton 1922. Bedford 1926,1927,1932B).
UNION CF SOUTH AFRICA (Neumann 1897,l90l,191l. Dixon and
Spruell 1898. Lounsbury 18990,1900L,l904A,B,l905B,l906B,C.
A. Theiler l905B,l906,1909A,B,Cd1911B,19l2B,l921. Howard 1908.
A. Theiler and Christy 1910. Donitz 1910B. Moore 1912. Van Saceghem 1914. Bedford 1920,1926,1927,1929,l932B,1934. Cowdry' 1923 ,l925B ,0 ,l926l,1927. Curson 1928. Bedford note in Cooley 1929. Cooley 1934- Clark 1938. McIntyre 1939. Bedford and
Graf 1939. R. du Toit, Graf, and Bekker 1941. R. du Toit 1942B,C,1947. De Meillon 1942. Zumpt 1942B. Cluver 1944.
Baker and Graf 1946. Thorburn 1947,1952. Schreuder and Wright 1948. Graf and Bekker 1949. Whitnall and Bradford 1949. Bekker, Graf, Malan, and Va.n der Merwe 1949. Theiler 1950B. Meeser 1952.
J. Gear 1954) .
omxmc ISLANDS: zmzrms (Neave 1912. Aders 1917). MAIIRL. TIUS ~my . Moutia and Mamet 191.7). cum ISLANDS (Nuttall lot 3226 in BMNH; H.H. det.). See also IMPORTED ssmmms below.
ARABIA: YEIIEN: Franchini (1930) stated specimens had been fo~ seacoast town of Hodeida. Our experience here indi_ cates that if this locality record is correct, the ticks were from cattle imported from the Yemen highlands. Sanborn and Hoogstraal (1953), Hoogstraal (ms.).
IMPORTED SPEBIMENS: MADAGASJAR: I_i. 2. evertsi arrives at quarantine ER is not established on the islaT1'd—(§u.Ek l940,1948A, Hoogstraal 1953s). mm; Mason (1915,1916) reported specimens on cattle imported from the Sudan. Nowadays at the Cairo abattoir we find a few specimens on Sudan cattle and sometimes many spec. imens on Somali or Ethiopian cattle that occasionally reach here. Specimens from cattle and donkeys were reported by Mason (1916) without mention of source. The species is not established in Egrpt. BRAZIL: Specimens "were found on angora goats in the animal hospital. in Rio de Janeiro. If they had not been found they would certainly have been scattered throughout our country like §. sangu_ineus" (de Beaurepaire Aragao 1936).
Adult red ticks most commonly occur on domestic cattle, equines, goats, and sheep, and on wild antelopes, zebras and a few other large game animals. If a comparative host.predilection study of this species could be undertaken, it is likely that domestic horses, mules, and donkeys and wild zebras might rank highest as preferred hosts. Although Lewis (l93lB) considered it peculiar that horses in the R t Valley of Kenya yielded no red ticks, I have subsequent. ly collected many specimens from horses there_E7. Immature stages normally feed on the same type of large.size ost as do the adults, though their feeding sites on the animal differ markedly. Under some conditions, larvae and nymphs attack hares, elephant shrews, tree rats, and baboons, but the factors causing these presumably atypical infestations are not known.
Domestic animals: Cattle are mentioned as hosts by all authors noted a5ve ~es, sheep, and goats are also commonly listed by the same persons. A single record from camel is known (Wiley 1953). Dogs are seldom infested (Theiler 1953), as are pigs (Theiler, correspondence), although a few specimens from each of these animals have been taken in the Sudan. Dogs have been re. ported as hosts by Mettam (1932) in Uganda.
Wild antelo s: In one of the earliest host.lists of African ticks, How~) noted the eland and reedbuck. Bedford (l932B) listed the blue wildebeest, sable antelope, blesbok, roan antelope, Cape kudu, impala, steenbuck, Cape duiker, springbok, bushbuck, waterbuck, and (for nymphs) the bontebok, steenbok, and grysbok. In the Sudan, King (1926) noted specimens from the Isabella gazelle, while we have found others on the tel.tel Gioosevelt's hartebeest), eland, Baker's roan antelope, and oribi. Mettam (1932) reported duiker and kob f1‘Om Uganda, eha weber (1948) took specimens from the eland, Grant's gazelle, duiker, hartebeest, and impala. The impala has also been reported by Meeser (1952; see ecolo below), sehtee Dias (195313), eha Tendeiro (l95lA,B), while Jack %9z.2) added the tsessebe. In the Masai Reserve of Kenya, Lewis (1934) found the roan antelope, wildebeest, and hartebeest infested. The sable antelope, eland, wildebeest, and kudu were reported as hosts in Northern Rhodesia by Matthysse (1954). These records are rep. resentative of others relating to wild antelopes as hosts.
Other wild animals: Zebras, various kinds GNeumann 19006, l9lO§:I922, Iaveridge 1923A, Lewis l931B,l934, Bedford 1932B, Mettam 1932, Weber 1948, Matthysse 1954). Giraffe (Howard 1908, Neumann l90l,l90flC,l9lOB, Moore 1912). Warthog (Neumann 1922, 1954; other specimens in FIZZ). Cane rat (Bedford 1932B. These somewhat larger than ordinary rodents appear to harbor an un. usual number of stray ticks that do not normally infest rodents).
Noninfestation of oun antelo es: Mettam (1933) made the interesting o5servatI3n that new y rn kob, duiker, bushbuck,
and reedbuck in an Entebbe paddock heavily infested with R.
a ndiculatus and R. evertsi were in no instance affected by tEese ticE§. Wild adults of these antelopes are commonly at.
Immature st as: as already stated, larvae ad nymphs con» monly tifest t a same kinds of hosts as adults. Sometimes, however, they do attach to other animals, especially hares, for reasons not yet understood. Hares have been reported as in» mature stage hosts Moore (1912), Bedford (1932s), Sanborn and Hoogstraal (1953 , Matthysse 1954; and others; see also BIOLOGY below. Some specimens are found in ears of elephant shrews (Sudan records above) and Theiler (correspondence) has a single record from another genus, Nasilio, of these insecti. vores, as well as another from a tree rat, Thallo s. Bedford (1932B) reported nymphs from various antelopes, Egg Lewis (19328) found both immature stages comon in the ears of hartebeests. Dogs are satisfactory hosts for laboratory rearing of the im.
mature stages (Lounsbury 1904A).
R. evertsi is one of the few rhipicephalid ticks with a two. host type of life cycle. Both immature stages occupy the same hosts, but engorged nymphs drop and melt on the ground. As adults they seek a new host. All stages normally infest domestic or wild herbivores, but under some conditions immature stages may attack insectivores, rodents, and hares. Theiler (correspondence) has observed that this may be due to unusual or local factors: "For