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What may be a considerably varying incidence of R. s. sang¥ineus on dogs throughout tropical and south Africa is diffiEuIt to re a e to any climatic or ecological factor in the absence of detailed sur. veys. Many published remarks on this subject appear to have been too hasty, since observations were not made over any extended period of time.

Lewis (1934) stated: "Although some Masai huts (in Kehys) sheltered many dogs, no R. sannuineus were found after diligent search“ ..... and (l939A) ...... "The tick has been observed to infest dogs heavily in townships and on farms; but the writer has never found (it) in native huts where dogs rest and sleep more or less with the family". This last statement is certainly contrary to our eperience in Kenya and everywhere else.

On several recent trips to the southern Sudan we have checked native "pied dogs" and found them to be not only infested but fre_ quently literally covered with.§. §. sagfigineus. Dogs kept by Europeans, when they were still in the an, were usually so frequently deticked or doused with insecticide that a true picture of their infestation in relation to that of village dogs was im. possible to obtain.

In the Kilimani area near Nairobi, dogs are infested with many specimens of H. leachii but few of R. s. s 'neus, while in lowland Mombasa7R. s. san neus is 55 far tge predominant species (Kauntze 1934): A nunéer of generalized remarks con. cerning the incidence of ticks on dogs are provided under R. s. simus (page 738). _

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Domestic cats appear to be infrequent hosts of this tick. The large wild felines of Africa are sometimes attacked but then usually only by a few ticks.

Exceptional Hosts

Rare or unusual hosts that have been reported in Africa are: puff adder in Tanganyika (Loveridge 1928), bats (HH, collecting


in Egypt), pangolin (Howard 1908), zebra in Somaliland (Stella 19393), baboon (Sudan records above), bushbaby (Vil1iers 1955 in

French West Africa and Sudan record above), okapi in the Congo
(Bequaert 1930A).

Tortoise (D'dnitz 191012, Neumann 1911). If these remarks refer to the record of Michael (1899) from Lake Urmi, Iran, they are probably based on misidentification of g. aegyptium.

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In our field work in various parts of the tropics and sub. tropics of the world few commensal rodents have been found to be attacked by immature stages of the kennel tick. In two areas of

Puerto Rico, Fox (1950) reported an infestation rate of only 0.5 and 3.2 percent on 1326 Rattus examined.

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Pearse (1929) collected specimens from the following animals in Nigeria: two species of hedgehogs, and four rodents (Lemnis_

cows striatus, Taterillus gracilis gelus, Thryzonofls swinderianus, and Praomys tullbergi . The identifier and the

s age 0 e ticks were not stated. These are most interesting data that few others have duplicated. In Tunisia, the gundi

(Rodentia; Ctenodact lus gundi) is said to be frequently attacked by larvae and nymphs (chatton and Blanc 1918).


The several unusual small mammal hosts found infested in Equatoria Province (listed above) were all taken in association with native villages. The elephant shrew, Ele hantulus rufescens hoo straali, was caught in an island of dense shtfih and tree vegetation, among which shepherds and their animals sought refuge from the glaring sun, in the grasslands near a village. The bushbaby, Gal ,0 s. sene alensis, lived in a fig tree under which the village elders and their dogs congregated. The two infested

tree squirrels, Heliosciurus gambianus hoogstraali, were feeding


in a village tree and above a community watering hole, respectively. The rock hyra, Heterohyrax brucei hoo straali, occupied a ledge a few dozen yards above a group of hIIIside huts.

A significant observation of all stages of the kennel tick feeding on European rabbits, Or‘ctol rus cuniculus, in a forest near Casablanca has been reported By Blane and runeau (1954).

In the Yemen, tremendous infestations, representing varying pro_ portions of all stages, were found on all hares examined (Sanborn and Hoogstraal 1953; Hoogstraal, ms.). In Egypt the same is true of hares, some two hunded of which have been examined. Equatoria Province records shpw numerous adults on hares and grass rabbits (or grass hares, Poel s , and in Bahr El Ghazal Province all stages were taken rom e several specimens of hares. Indeed, it appears that in both the Ethiopian and Palearctic Fannal Rea gions of Africa and Arabia, lagomorphs may be exceedingly im. portant as secondary hosts or possibly even as pimary hosts of all stages of the kennel tick. Yet, there is no evidence avail. able to indicate that domestic rabbits kept in hutches are seriously infested by this parasite, although as a rule merely housing any animal seems to be an important factor leading to

its being attacked by this parasite. European rabbits, an in. tegral part of every Bedouin tenthold in Egypt, are usually infested. These rabbits, which seldom venture far from their owners‘ tents, are carried from place to place in a bag on the side of a camel when Bedouins move in search of pasturage. Out_ side of Africa, hares have been found infested by notable nubers of this tick in Anatolia (Hoogstraal, ms.).

Without going into detail, a suvey of field data indicates

that hedgehogs may play a role in supporting this tick second only to that of lagomorphs. These spiny insectivores are conu

monly though seldom heavily infested.

In Egypt, most kinds of desert rodents are occasionally

infested by larvae and nymphs, as are also grass 1'9-I-S» Arvicanthis n. niloticus, in cultivated areas. These data are too

vo uminous and complex to evaluate in the present study. It is, however, apparent that in field situations the life history

differs from that of urban populations.

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It should be of some interest to present the available Africarl records of avian parasitism by R. s. s ‘nous in the hope of in. stigating further investigation_of_th1's sulbiect. The immediate concern over this problem is the fact that specimens from birds in Equatoria Province have much lighter interstitial punctations than those from mammals in the same Province. Material from birds resembles the majority of specimens from northern Sudan and Egypt and is in closer conformity to the general conception of the appearance of this species.

Recorded African avian hosts are the following:


Struthio camelus massaicus in Kenya (Neumann 1911,1912). §. camelus subsp. in Uganda (Theiler, unpublished). camelus australis in Mozambique (Santos Dias l952D).



and from Sudan Kor an ovince record above). “Greater

bustard" in Kenya (Lewis 1934). "Lesser" and "greater" bustards in Sudan (various Province records above). Neotis cafra denhami in Sudan (Equatoria Province records above). Neotis cafra

Jacksoni in Uganda (Theiler, unpublished) _._7

Lissotis melanogaster in Mozambique Z‘ Specimens in BM (NH)


Secret ary bird

Sa ittarius ser ntarius in Sudan (1G1artoum zoo record above and 1n Kenya ewis 34).



B canistes albotibialis from Yaounde, French Cameroons (J . Mouchet legit, HR det.).


S henorh chus abdimii in the Sudan (Equatoria Province record above). Ieptoptilos crumeniferus in Uganda (Theiler, unpublished).



Ha edashia ha edash subsp. (Neumann 1911) and as "Theristicus leucocep us in anganyika (Neumann l907C,l910B).

Hawks, Kites, Buzzards, Eagles, and Owls

Kite in the Sudan (King 1926 and Khartoum record above). "Large vulture“ in the Sudan (Blue Nile Province record above). Butastur rufi nnis in Belgian Congo (Bequaert 1931). Eagle owl Bubo Eubc asc§§aphus (= Strix ascala hus) in Egypt (Neumann 1901:


“Ringed pigeon" in South Africa (Howard 1908).


There appear to be no African records of this tick from do. mestic fowls.

Specimens parasitizing birds are usually found on the crown of the head, near the eyes, around or in the ears, at the base of the skull, or in folds of skin beside the beak.


Laboratory studies on the general biology of the kennel tick are rather complete. However, field biology and ecology have been much neglected. The biology of this form when confined to houses harboring dogs, although accepted as being well known, has not been adequately studied.

Numerous biological and ecological questions concerning

the kennel tick remain to be answered. Why is the density and distribution of African populations so uneven? What is the

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