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Horses (Neumann l90l,l902B,19l1, Howard 1908, Massy 1908, I.ewIe‘I931|1, Bedford 193213) .

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Shee (Howard 1908, Lewis l93lA,C,1932A,1934, Daubney and Hudson 1., Wilson 19501;).

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14.2

More specimens of R. s. simus were taken on members of our parties in southern Sud§n'than any other tick species. Several of these were engorging and others mi ht have done so if they had not been removed. Galli_Valerio %l909B), Jack (1942), and Lusden (1955) noted incidental attacks on man. Veneroni (1928) and Zumpt and Glajchen (1950) reported human paralysis after bites of the glossy tick. Others have said specifically that no spec_ imens were found on people during suveys, for example, Kauntze's (1934) report on the Kilmani area near Nairobi. J. B. Walker (correspondence), however, reported five males and three females from man in tall grass country south of Arusha, Tanganyika.

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Primates: In Bahr El Ghazal, hundreds of specimens were collected from old male baboons, some of which harbored as many as 200 glossy ticks, chiefly in the axilla. In the same areas, baboons travelling in comunity groups were consistently free of ticks. In Kenya, we found specimens on Colobus monkeys (see also I. schilli si, page 558), but, except for a note by Lumsden (19557, there is no reference in the literature to similar collections. Theiler (correspondence) has a single record from Galago crassicaudatus agisymbanus from Zanzibar.

Carnivores: These animals, along with some of the larger and thlcker skinned herbivores of Africa, appear to be hosts of choice: Lions £'All extensive African collections studied by the writer contain specimens from lions. Reported by Neumann

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(l90l,l90'7C,l9lOB,l9ll,1922), Howard (1908), Ki (1926), Bedford (19323), Lewis (1932A,l931.), Wilson (l9l.6B,l950B , weber (191.8), Santos Dias (l952H,l953C), and others;7. Leo ards (Loveridge 1923a, King 1926, Bequaert 193011, Lewis 1932I'?1'9TL, Zumpt 191.311, Wilson 1950B. Numerous specimens in EMH collections).

Cheetah (Lewis 1932A,1934). Serval (Lewis l93lB,l932A). vario_'£'_us oxes (King 1926, Weber 1928-3", . B. Walker, unpublished). Various H enas (Neumann 1922, Loveridge 1923A, Lewis 1934, Zumpt I9Z3I:_J. E. Walker, unpublished). Various ackals (Neumann 1902B, Lewis l93lA,l932A,1934, ZumptIl9Z3I). arious civets (Loveridge 1923A, Bequaert l93OA, Allen and Loveridge I933,

Zumpt 1943i, Matthysse 1951.). Genet (Bequaert 1930a). Huntin do s, L caon ictus (Howard l9OS, Van Saceghem 1914, Lewis I9§lA, Beéford l9§2B; . B. Walker, unpublished). Ratel (Sudan records above). Marsh mo oose (Loveridge 1923A). The Onderstepoort collection, BM , an the present collections contain numerous other specimens from these and similar carnivores.

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Antelopes: In Equatoria, the only records of this tick from antelopes are from two common elands, a tiang, a large_snouted dik_dik, and two roan antelopes. None others were found on the several hundred antelopes examined in Equatoria and Bahr El Ghazal Provinces. Elsewhere in the Sudan, there is only a single record from a roan antelope at Kaka in Upper Nile Province; this was reported by King (1926). King also noted the gazelle as a host, but specimens are not now available.

Simpson's (1914) records for a West African oribi and a reedbuck quite possibly pertain to the subspecies senegalensis.

Other published records from antelopes are: Duiker (Bedford 193213). Grant's gazelle (Lewis 1931.). Kudu (Bedford 1932, Lewis 1932A). Bushbuck (Lewis l93lA,1932A). Eland (Lewis l93l.A,l932A). Wildbeest (Lewis l932A,l934). Sable antelope (Santos Dias 1950). Impala (Meeser 1952). Steinbuck (Lewis 1931B).

On 49 Tanganyika Thomson's gazelles that yielded many ticks, R. s. simus was represented by only two females although this subspecies was common on many other kinds of hosts from the same area. (J. B. Walker, unpublished). A single male was found on

an eland.

In wi1sen's (195013) list of nine kinds of hosts of this tick

kin Nyasaland, no antelopes are represented, and none were included . among Howard's (1908) eleven kinds of hosts from southern Africa.

The Onderstepoort collection contains only seven collections of glossy ticks from various antelopes throughout Africa (Theiler, correspondence). In addition to the kinds mentioned above, these

are a topi from Uganda, a gemsbok from Southwest Africa, and an oribi from Southern Rhodesia.

Other hosts: Elephants [ In Equatoria Province these animals are either normally attacked by A. tholloni or are free of ticks; but in Bahr El Ghazal Province all elephants examined were heavily

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‘ infected by R. s. simus and none harbored A. tholloni. Numerous

specimens of_R.-s. sImus have been examined in various collections from elephant? iT1 other parts of Africa. Others have been reported by Mettam (l932)_7. Buffalo 1- These animals are usually infested in the Sudan and frequently harbor numerous specimens of R. _s_. simus. Elsewhere they are also important hosts of this t'ick. Records have been published by Neumann (190'7C ,l910B,19l1,1922), Davey and Newstead (1921) Bequaert (l930A,l93l), Lewis (l93lB,C, l932A,l943), Mettam (1932), and Santos Dias (l952D) 7. Rhinoceroses The black, or narrow_1ipped rhinoceros is hardly En important ost because it is seldom numerous in nature, but where it occurs most individuals appear to be infested by the glossy tick. See Neumann (1922), Lewis (19321), Zumpt (19431), J. B. Walker (un. published). The excessively rare white , or s uare..lipped rhinoceros has been reported as a host by Breijer ((1915) and Zumpt (l943A); these reports apply, however, only to the southern rac_e7. Hi tamus Specimens were found on the ears of three specimens examined In t e Sudan; three other specimens were free of ticks. No other records are available]. Pigs The warthog and bushpig are frequently infested in the Sudan elsewhere. See Neumann (l90l,1907C,l9l0B,l911), Howard (1908), Bequaert (19301,1931), Lewis (193112 c,19321), Bedford (1932), Mettam 1932), Weber (1948), Wilson 1950B), and J . B. Walker (unpublished) . Zebras Reported by Neumann (l907C,19l0B 1911), Lewis (193 ,l932A), Me tam (1932), and Santos Dias (l952D) 7. Antbear or aardvark, ctero afer Neumann (1922), B3dford (I932), LewIs (I93 , 1 son ('I'94'6B, 950B), Matthysse (1954) . African rcu ines Z'Neumann (19070, l9l0B,l91l) Lewis (193 ), M“‘€¥iy'et sse~ . B. Walker (un.. published) Pan olin [Mettem (1932)_7.

It

ZTGiraffe: Inasmuch as adults commonly parasitize so many large game animals, infestation of giraffes is to be anticipated. However, no published records have been found indicating that this is so. In Bahr El Ghazal Province, where this is a common tick and where numerous giraffes were examined, R. s. simus was not found on these animals‘7 _

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Exce tional hosts: Hedgehogs (Howard 1908, Van Saceghem 1914, Bedgord 19325). Hares (Loveridge 1923A, Bedford l932B,

Lewis 1932A). In the laboratory, Lewis (l932A) found that adults feed readily on hares (see also imature stages below). Rabbit (Howard 1908). Cane rats (See also next paragraph. Sudan records include a single collection from Bahr El Ghazal and the 0nderste_ poort collection contains three lots from Southern Rhodesia). Rodents (South African Oto s, Aetho s, and Rhabdomys; four records: Theiler, correspondence .

?Mistaken identit : Specimens from a cane rat (Bedford 1932B) were later found to be R. sim soni and not R. simus (Bedford 1934). Neumann's (1922), Mettam's (I532) and LoverIdge|s (1923A) specimens from cane rats should be checked against E. simpsoni. See HOSTS

of R. simpsoni, page

"Large gray cattle tick (?Rhi ice halus sinus Koch) (sic) attached to and completely blocking up the ear opening" of a lizard, Mabuia striata (Loveridge 19231)). This sounds like an

Apgnomma tick.

Note

Adults, found frequently in rodent nests in which the immature stages feed, are always newly molted, unmated, unfed individuals biding their time before venturing forth to find a host more at. tractive to them than rodents.

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Rodent hosts: All of the numerous records of adults in the

Onderstepoort collection are from larger size animals and most records of immature stages are from small, nest-inhabiting mammals

(Theiler, correspondence). Our field experience in East Africa

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and Arabia follows the same pattern. The details have been best worked out by Roberts (1935) (also noted by Kauntze 1934) who found the immature stages in the Nairobi area in nests of the following rodents: grass rats or kusu, Arvicanthis sp.; groove_toothed rat, Otomys sp.; striped grass mouse, femniscomys sp.; four_striped

grass mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio; an imammate rat, Mastogys (= Mius) coucha.

In the Sudan, some larvae and many nymphs were taken on the same types of animals mentioned by Roberts and also on gerbils, Tatera b. benvenuta. Engorging specimens were taken on these anim§Is_trapped away from their nest. We also took a single nymph from two different kinds of hares in two localities but it seems that hares should be considered as exceptional hosts for imature stages. In Northern Rhodesia, Matthysse (1954) also reports larvae from hares.

British Museum (Natural History) collections contain a nymph from another probably exceptional host, a ground squirrel Fermos_ ciurus sp., collected by Karl Jordan in Southwest Africa. A Break. down of collections of immature stages from South Africa in the Onderstepoort collection (Theiler, correspondence) shows that nine are from hares, two are from springhaas, five from hyraxes, one from ground squirzel; 125 from %he)fol1owing genera of murid rodents: Aetho s 5 , Rhabdo s 24 , Lemnisco s, Masto s, Thallo s, I¥¥icanthis, Rattus, and Mus~ an o y rom the foIIow¥ng cricetid rodents: Otomys'I33), Myotomys, Parotomys, Tatera and Gerbillus.

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Other reports of immature stage hosts are short.haired rats, Praogs sp. for larvae (Bedford 1932B) and Prao s jacksoni for nymp s during the dry season around Leopoldvi e anson, ichard, and Toubac 1947), and an elephant shrew for a nymph "probably of this species" in Kenya (Lusden 1955).

Exceptional hosts of immature stages in the Onderstepoort collection (Theiler, unpublished) are three elephant shrews and

one Crocidura shrew (insectivores), one hartebeest, one mongoose, and one mierka . Also included are three birds from the region

of the Sabi_Lundi Function, Southern Rhodesia, the puff_back shrike, Qryoscopus cubla, the blue-breasted waxbill, Uraeginthus

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