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5 5 Nimule L caon pictus somalicus Jul (SJSI

1 Kapoeta* Hi tr s e ui nus 5a"keri Dec

1 17 Boma Ecerus c er aeguinoctialis Dec


2 H010 Sigcerus caff er ae uinoctialis Mar
3 Mongalla S cerus cgfer ae uinocti l.S ._ (S05)
4 Kheirallah S cerus cafer ae uinoctiali s Mar (S00)

1 Lugurren Pfiacochoerus aethiopicus 530 Jan

10 15 Sunat Phacochoerus aethio icus F-1.1’? Apr
3 4 Kheirallah Phacochoerus aethiopicus ‘$5 .. (S00)
2 E(3undl<)a domestic dog Mar (SOC)


4 4 Magwe on grass May (515) 4 4 Mvolo on grass .. (SGC) 1 3 Mvolo on grass Jul (SVS)

Specimens in the Sudan Government collection noted above were collected by H. H. King in 1910 and 1911. They had been identified as sinms and as falcatus.



Bahr _El. Ghazal: 16‘, 19 from buffalo, Guar, Forest, 8 June 1953, P. J. Henshaw legi . 1d‘, and 5&3‘ and 18 go


*Co1lected with 3:58‘ and 19 R. simus SlII1I.1S. This is the only col. lection seen from anywhere in B'rica in which typical specimens of both subspecies have been found on a single host. The host

was obviously a migrant.

“For comment, see BIOLOGY below.

from two warthogs, same locality as above, 7 June 1953, and 8 January 1954, collected by E. T. M. Reid and P. Blasdale. Numerous other specimens collected in the same area in July by the same persons, but without host data. 16', 29?, recently molted clinging to grass (with Dermacentor rhinocerinus), 25 miles west of Yirol, 23 November 1954, E. ‘T. M. Reid le it. 1036‘ and 2299 (some of which intergrade with R. simus simus (cf. IDENTIFICATION below), from elephant near Kenisa, May 1955, E. T. M. Reid legit. Sudan Government collections contain other Kenisa area specimens from elephants, collected in 1911 , which show similar intergrade.tion with R. s. simus (cf. REMARKS below). Mr. Reid has sent me numerous specimens from three elephants shot near Yirol; these are typical R. 3. simus.



R. simus sene alensis is a West and Central African tick with scattered loci in' more humid areas of East Africa as far south as northern Nyasaland.

WEST AFRICA: NIGERIA (Unsworth 1952. As R. simus: Simpson 19lH~et. by Nuttall and Warburton 8.3-R.__'__S1m1J.S falcatus; see p. . As R. simus lon oides: Unsworth 1949, Mettam I950, Gambles 1951). m~ (Koch 1841.. RO11SSelO‘b 1951, 19531;. As R. simus lon oides: Villiers 1955). SIERRA LEONE, IVORY COAST-, c?5LU'Co1'§1'g,T6CU (Zumpt 191.30). PORTUGESE GUINEA (Tendeiro 195212 ,0 ,1953 ,1954) .

CENTRAL AFRICA: cmmoous (Zumpt l943A*. Rageau 1951,1953A. B). ~m E0 0 IAL AFRICA (Zumpt 19430. RO11SS6lOt 1951)BELGIAN CONGO and RUANDA-URUNDI (?As R. simus shi 1e 1: Bequaert 1930B,193l. Zumpt 1943A*. Rousse1ot_l9'53Y. e1 er and Robinson 1951.. Van Vaerenbergh 1951.. See HOSTS below).

EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (In part as R. simus and as falcatus: King IW6. Hoogstraal l954.B,C). UGA'NDA_a.?1d-TANCAIIYIKA (Hoogstraal 19540. J. B. Walker, unpublished; see HOSTS below).


*A11 Zumpt (l943A) records are under simus longoides subsp. nov. which Zumpt (l950A) later synonymized under __R. simus ~.


SOUTHRN AFRICA: NYASALAND (As H. falcatus: several spec. imens, Nuttall lot I099A in BMNH, with numerous E. lon , from Chitipa Valley, Dowa District, 1910, J. B. Davey legit).

NOTE: Koch's (1844) record from Egypt, subsequently quoted by numerous authors, is either based on a mistaken locality label or on a specimen of R. s. san 'neus. Koch based his original description on femaIes;_onIy, ¥rom Senegal (French West Africa) and Egypt. See REMARKS below.

HOSTS Like the subspecies simus, E. simus sene alensis attacks a variety of larger game and_d5mestic animals. The immatue stages

probably feed on rodents, but no data concerning their host pref. erences are available.

Domestic animals: Cattle (Zumpt 1943A‘, Rousselot 1951, 1953B, Unsworth I§52, Rageau 1953B, Hoogstraal l954C**). Horses (Nuttall lot 182 in mun, see NIGERIA above. Zumpt 191.3A*). Pigs (Rousselot l95l,l953B, Rageau 1953B). Sheep (Rousselot l95l,l953B). Dogs (Rousselot 1951,1953B, and Uganda and Sudan records above).

Wild animals: Bushpig (Zumpt l943A*). Warthogs (Nuttall lot 1'0‘7§1,"s_NYoo ASALAND above. Rousselot l95l,l953B. Sudan records above. Uganda specimens in HMNH). Zr?Giant eland (Bequaert l93OB,193l see BELGIAN couco above) 7. wildebeest (Walker, upublished). Bongo (Rageau 1951). Foan antelope (Sudan record above). Buffalos (Hoogstraal l95LC**, Van Vaeren_ bergh 1954, Villiers 1955, Theiler, unpublished. Walker, un.. published. Sudan records above). Forest dwarf buffalo (Tendei_ ro l952B,C,l953,l95l.).) Elephants (Common hosts in Ba1(1r El Ghazal' recorded above . Hunting dog, L caon ictus Sudan record,above). Lion (Congo specimens in Mfiz aid-HH_collections).


*All Zumpt (l943A) records are under E. simus longoides subsp. nov. which Zumpt (l950A) later synonymized under 5. simus senegalensis.

**My 1954C report of domestic cattle should be wild buffalo (fggs caffer" on label).


NOTE: Rousselot (1951,l953B) records specimens from the cane rat, Tb{5%onoHs swinderianus. These specimens should be checked agains . sm 0 . n e same reports he states that the short

'P?ao s

aaired rat % jacksoni is a host in the Belgian Congo. Unless this no e re ers parasitism by an immature stage, this animal would be a most unusual host. Santos Dias (l95Zl,l953,

1954) states that one nymph along with many males has been taken from a forest dwarf buffalo.

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It cannot be determined whether the life cycle data presented by Rousselot (l953B, p. 92) under R. simus senegalensis concern

this subspecies or the subspecies simus; ot er remar under the same heading refer obviously to the subspecies simus. Unfortunately, no clues to the life cycle of R. simus senegalensis in nature

are available. Rousselot (l953E, -15. 91:) cl ms t a s is a three-host subspecies.



This is a tick of West African higher rainfall areas. Populations that range into East Africa appear to be confined to animals found in forests, in more heavily vegetated savannah, and in the vicinity of lakes. The Boma Plains buffalo on which some Sudan specimens were taken was probably a migrant, for the Boma Plains are too arid for many months of the year to allow this tick to survive.

According to Unsworth (1952), in Nigeria the subspecies

sene alensis "appears to have approximately the same distriEfition as simus, but it is not so common"



It is claimed that specimens of E. simus sene alensis naturally infected with Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) Have Been found in Portugese Guinea.


Koch (1844) based his original description on females only. His material was reported as from Senegal and Egypt. It is most likely that the Egyptian record is due to a mistaken locality label. Just how the Senegal specimen has been associated with what is today called R. SlI!Il1S sene alensis has not been deter. mined. A fennle speclmen of t1E R. simus group from Koch's time would be difficult to identify wi'th any degree of certainty, especially to subspecies. Neumann (1911) synonymized senegalensis under R. simus. Zumpt (l943A,195OA) described what is now con.

sidered as _R. simus senegalensis.


A number of the Sudan and Tanganyika collections listed here. in were sent to Santos Dias for identification, along with some

specimens of Egg The simus sene alensis material was determined by him as _. longus and the _R. longus material was labelled R. capensis pseudo ongu .

Zumpt (l943A,l950A) warns his readers that heavily punctate

R. simus sene alensis may superficially resemble R. lon . The R. longs of éantos Dias (l953D) appears to be what Zumpt con. siders a heavily punctate R. simus senegalensis.


A further note is necessary concerning collections listed above as simus.sene alensis intergrades from elephants near Kenisa, Bahr El Ghazal Province. hese are comparatively small, brownish specimns, with simus scutal punctation, posteromedian and para. median grooves absent or very faintly indicated, and adanal shields showing every degree of variation from the most typical simus type to the most typical senegalensis type. These series nicely corro. borate Zumpt's treatment of senegalensis as a subspecies of simus.



Male: Within the R. sirmis group, as described in the key and under R. simus, males of the subspecies sene alensis are referred to a gY'oup with sickleshaped adanal shields. The scutal outline is definitely wider in relation to length than in most specimens of R. _s. simus and the scutal surface is flat, not arched as in

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