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RHIPICEPHALUS TRICUSPIS Dönitz, 1906
(Figures 317 to 320)
THE TRICUSPD GLOSSY TICK
DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN
All from Galual-Nyang Forest, 1953; E. T. M. Reid or 1.7. Hancock, collectors: 208, 209 from tiang, Damaliscus korrigum tiang, April. 10 from warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus subspp., 4 September. 10 from oribi, Ourebia ourebi subspp., 7 June. 10 from giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis subspp., 17 Angust. 200, 19 from domestic horse from Busseri, 20 June.
R. tricuspis is not known from elsewhere in the Sudan but probably also occurs on the west bank of Equatoria Province.
R. tricuspis is scattered throughout Africa, within the Ethiopian Faunal Region,
WEST AFRICA: NIGERIA (Unsworth 1949,1952. Gambles 1951). TOGO TAS R. glyphis: Dönitz 1910A). SIERRA LEONE (Zumpt 1943A). FRENCH WEST AFRICA (Rousselot 1951, 1953B). PORTUGESE GUINEA (Tendeiro 1951E, 1952B,C,E,1953,1954). GOLD COAST (Stewart 1935).
*Dr. G. Theiler has kindly made an extensive study of the morpha logical variation, distribution, ecology, and taxonomy of this species especially for this work. See also her review of R. tricuspis (1947, pp. 292 298).
CENTRAL AFRICA: CAMEROONS (Unsworth 1952. Rageau 1953A,B). *FRENCH QUATORIAL AFRICA (Rousselot 1953B). *BELGIAN CONGO (Neumann 1907B. Massey 1908. Schoenaers 1951A. Nuttall and Warburton 1916. Schwetz 1927B. Bequaert 1930B,1931. Fain 1949. Theiler and Robin son 1954. Santos Dias 1954D. Van Vaerenbergh 1954).
EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (Hoogstraal 1954B).
UGANDA (Neave 1912. Mettam 1932. Wilson 19500). KENYA (Lewis 19310. Binns 1951). TANGANYIKA (Donitz 1910B. As R. glyphis: Dönitz 1910A. Zumpt 1943A).
SOUTHERN AFRICA: *ANGOLA (Gamble 1914. Sousa Dias 1950. Specimens collected by Wellman seen in BMNH; see also HOSTS below). MOZAMBIQUE (Santos Dias 1950D,1952C,D,8,1953B).
NORTHERN RHODESIA (Theiler 1947. Matthysse 1954. Theiler and Robinson 1954). *NYASALAND (Neave 1912. Warburton 1912. Theiler 1947. Wilson 1950B).
*BECHUANALAND (Dönitz 1906,1910B. Theiler 1947). SOUTHWEST AFRICA (Dönitz 1910B). *UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Howard 1908. Bed ford 1920,1926,1932B. Theiler 1947).
Domestic animals and many larger game animals serve as hosts for R. tricuspis. Immature stage hosts in nature are unknown.
Domestic animals: Horses (Neumann 1907B, Massey 1908, Zumpt 1943A, Sudan records above). Cattle (Dönitz 1910A,B, Nuttall and Warburton 1916, Schwetz 1927B, Zumpt 1943A, Theiler 1947, Wilson 1950B, Binns 1951, Rousselot 1951,1953B, Schoenaers 1951A, Santos Dias 1953B, Matthysse 1954, Van Vaerenbergh 1954). Sheep and
*Theiler (correspondence) has seen additional material from these territories.
goats (Nuttall and Warburton 1916, Theiler 1947, Wilson 1950B).
Wild animals: Lion and serval (Wilson 1950B). Leopard (Zumpt 19434). "wild dog" (Lewis 19310). Buffalo (Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1953B). Forest dwarf buffalo (Tendeiro 1951E, 1952B, C,E,1953,1954). Zebra, Lichtenstein's hartebeest, and sable antelope (Santos Dias 1953B). Oribi (gwape) and steinbuck (Wilson 1950B). Duikers, various (Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1953B). Waterbuck and bushbuck (Mettam 1932). Reedbuck (Wil son 1950B, Santos Dias 1950D,1953B). Oribi, tiang, and giraffe (Sudan records above). Bushpig (Dönitz 1910A, Zumpt 1943A, Santos Dias 1950D, 1953B). Warthog (Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1953B, Sudan record above). Hedgehog (Neumann 1921). Hares (Theiler 1947, Wilson 1950B). Fruit bat (Specimens collected by Karl Jordan, now in BMNH; probably a decidedly exceptional host).
R. tricuspis has been reared by Theiler (correspondence) for the morphological studies reported by her (1947). The life cycle details will be published subsequently.
In order to determine whether there might be ecological or other distributional factors between R. tricuspis and what has been reported as R. lunulatus, Theiler correspondence) has checked all locality records against data for vegetation type, rainfall, extent of dry season, and relative humidity. She finds that both range indiscriminately from (1) dry forests of the Rhodesian highlands through (2) highgrass-low tree savannah or Guinee-southern Congo savannah, and (3) acacia desert grass savannah of the Sudan and northern Kalahari to (4) tallgrass subtropical evergreen and deciduous tree and thorn forest.
In South Africa (Theiler 1947), R. tricuspis occurs in the warmer areas with thorn trees, from the semiarid bushveld of the Kalahari to the moister bushveld of the lowveld of northern and eastern Transvaal and of Natal. It is absent in the Karroo scrubveld, the open grassveld of Orange Free State, and the middleveld and highveld of Transvaal.
Dr. Theiler's present study indicates that R. tricuspis appears to be resistant to a wide range of humidīty and aridity. It may be found in heavy rainfall areas with 42 inches annually and in areas where there is as much as seven months of drought. Santos Dias' (1950D,1952C) records of R. tricuspis and R. lunu latus" are from areas with the same kinds of vegetation and drought periods and the same average rainfall. Dönitz's (1910B) specimen from Little Namaqualand probably fell from its host when the Trekboers were migrating with their sheep from Bush manland and the southern Kalahari into Namaqualand in search of rains and pasturage.
In Northern Rhodesia, Matthysse (1954) found adults of the tricuspid brown tick mainly in the tail brush of cattle but also on the feet, anus, and ears. Most specimens that I have seen have been from the tail brush. They appear to be present chiefly during the rains but also in the dry season.
MAN: Specimens from Portugese Guinea have been reported to be free of fever (Coxiella burnetii).
PIGS: This tick is "possibly a vector of porcine piro plasmosis (Babesia trautmanni)n.
R. tricuspis was described by Dönitz (1906) from the Kalan hari õf Bechuanaland. The following year, Neumann (1907B) des cribed R. lunulatus from the Congo, and in 1910(A) Donitz des cribed R. glyphis from Togo and Tanganyika. Dönitz's papers