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FHSCEIIANEOUS: In Egypt, the pigeon argas is infected with one or more viruses distinct from West Nile but otherwise uniden. tified. .


Egypt is the only territory on continental Africa where the pigeon tick is known to be of some economic importance. The re. view of this species for the present work has not been as inten. sive as for most other-species.

The temperature preferences of unfed and engorged pigeon argas have been described by Herter (1942).

The anatomy has been described by Pagenstecher (1862).

According to Zuelzer (1921), 5. pgrsicus and 5. reflexus mate and produce fertile offspring. We have unsuccessfully attempted to duplicate this phenomenon in our Cairo laboratories.

With reference to remarks on coxal fluid by Rem (192l,1922B), see 0. moubata section, page 173. See also lavoipierre and Riek


Senevet (192OA) discussed the relationship of the size of the pads of the first pair of legs in larvae in relation to overall body size.


Schulze (19438) figured the midgut, as 5. columbarum, to 11. lustrate his observation that in the argasids, 53 particularly in this species and in bat.parasitizing species, there is little basal branching of the diverticula but considerable distal branching.

Schulze (1941) also noted and illustrated the haller's organ of each stage of the pigeon argas. K. W. Neumann (1942), a student of Schulze, discussed the morphology and function of the dorsal plate of the larva, also under the nane 5. columbarum.


There is some chance that the name 5. reflexus refers to a European parasite of wild birds and the correct name of the pigeon parasite should be 5. columbae (Hermann, 1804) (cf. DuBuysson 1924). Schulze (19438), referring to this species as Argas columbarum Shaw, 1793, a name usually considered as a nomen nudum, cite as s authority an apparently unpublished thesis on 5Io1ogy of the pigeon argas by one K. H.1ddller (1939, Berlin), whose report I have not Seene

Note, under remarks for A. rsicus, the characters of the sub. genus Ar as and that A. reflexus 1S considered to be the type spe_ cies of the genus and of the suhgenus (page 74 ).

A tick of questionable systematic status, A. hermanni (Audouin, 1827) is closely related to or identical with A“. r'TT"_e exus. when commencing the study of this group (HoogstraaI_l9§§KI it appeared that the two were valid species but subsequent investigation has left me with some doubts. Further observations are at present under way.


Remarks under identification of A. rsicus apply. Note that the dorsal and ventral body periphery of E. refIexus is composed of irregular striations.

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12 Imurok Heteroh ax brucei hoogs%raali Feb
1 Imurok Heteroh ax Eucei ogs r Feb

n en

1 Imatong Heteroh ax brucei hoogstraali Feb 1 Ninmle Acogs Estrella Apr


Blue Nile: Gebelein (E1 Jebelein) (King 1911,1915), "Blue Nile distrlc s" (Archibald 1923).

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Sudan Government collections contain King's Gebelein collections, numerous laboratory reared progeny, and Ruttledge's specimens from Delami in the Nuba Mountains.

Note the Egyptian records below, most of which are from the Southeastern Desert near the Sudan frontier in that part of Egypt administered by the Sudan Government.


Ar as brumggi is a tick of drier East African areas that has spread into ou and Southwest Africa, into that part of south

eastern Egypt that is included in the Ethiopian Faunal Region, and some distance into the Western Desert of Egypt (Palearctic Faunal Region). The distribution has been mapped by Hoogstraal and Kaiser


AKRTH AFRICA: EGYPT (Hoogstraal 1952A. Garnham 1954,1955.

Hwgs~ser 1956. Davis and Mavros 19561;. Schmidt and Marx 1956).

EAST mama. sunm (King 1911,1915,1926. Archibald 1923. Ruttledge I935. I-Ioogstraal l952A,195l.B. Hoogstraal and Kaiser 1956 .

ETHIOPIA (as Sonnlilard) (Nemnann 1907B,1911,1922. Nuttall e_t ;._1 1908. Stella l938A,l939A,l9l.0).

KENYA (Neave 1912. Cunliffe 1914B. Anderson 1924A. Warbuton 1933. Walton 195019. Garnham 1954,1955. Heisch 1951.1"). UGANDA (Hoogstraal and Kaiser 1956).

sounmsn AFRICA: ovmsouxm, SOUTHWEST AFRICA (Theiler, unpubli~he . sourn AFRICA and BFIIHUANALAND (Bedford 1936) .


Available records indicate that in nature larvae feed on lizards and on a number of mammals inhabiting dry caves, lairs, and rock ledges. Nymphs and adults also attack lizards and almost any mammal that happens to stop near their retreat. Certain birds are acceptable as larval hosts in the laboratory but birds have not yet been found infested in nature. Larvae have been reared on guinea pigs and nymphs a.nd adults on white mice.


Animals on which larval E. have actually been found in nature are the following:

Lizards: ama colonorum in the Sudan (Ruttledge 1930). Uromastix ocellatus an I ama a. s inosa in Southeastern Egypt (Ho3'g: str?aI E 51' ser 1956. Schmi an Marx 1956). Gerrhosaurus validus in Transvaal (Bedford 1936). The gecko TarentoIa a. annuIaris in the Western Desert and in the Southeastern desert_of Upper Egyp .

Rock hyraxes: Heteroh ax brucei hoo straali (Equatoria Prov. ince record above), Procavia sp. In Egypt I!-Ioogstraal 1952B), and Procavia ca nsis btxrtoni In Southeastern Egypt (Hoogstraal and Kaiser I956). 83

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