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and A. varie atum were represented as well as fifteen adult e. evertsi, singIe adults (of l_1. pravus and Li. aciculifer, and a paIr of _B. decoloratus.
Two male aciculifer from an unidentified hartebeest from Atiambo (Alungwe) are present in Sudan Government collections.
Approximately one in eight oribis examined in Torit District was tick infested. The. number of parasites per animal was eight
or less. Single nymphs of A. nuttalli varie atum ll. acicu. lifer, and R. pgavus, as well as milk; of H. acIc§I1'fer, R.‘
Eavus, 3. sangu_ineus were found. - _
The rate and density of tick infestation of the long.snouted dik.dik are similar to that of the oribi. Near Torit and Ikaoto,
two specimens bore three and fifteen nymphal A. um, others
_ varie at single adults of H. leachii rmhsami and R. pravus, ang two yielded seven adults of the Iatter species.
Bright's gazelle, to the best of our knowledge, occurs only in Eastern District. A specimen at Jebel Kathangor in December
was infested by sixteen nymphs, evenly divided between lepidum and variegatum, and four adults of the former species.
Europeans and Americans who venture into the field in eastern Equatoria commonly pick a few ticks off themselves afterwards. The ticks are usually quickly noticed due to the open clothing and numerous baths that are indulged in this area. Available
specific records derive only from our own party; other persons
informed us of being bitten by ticks but failed to preserve the specimens. No infestation of indigenous people was observed,
Ticks actually feeding on man at Torit and Ikoto were nymphal
A. variegatum and R. a endiculatus, female R. ravus and R. s. simus, and male R.‘ ravus, R. s. sang\1ineus,-ang"HI—s. siniis;-the Iast named tick was so re3orded~ The nymph of'1T._a pen. diculatus taken from the leg of one of our party at Torit_th€Eda—y Efter returning from Kajo Kaji is of especial interest since the
parasite undoubtedly attached at Kajo Kaji, some three hundred miles from Torit.
Ticks removed from human beings but not attached were adults
of the three rhipicephalid species noted above. A male R. s. sangineus “from man“ at Khor Lado was presented by Mr. Reid.
Three specimens of the African relapsing fever vector, 0. moubata, were collected in a hut at Liria (cf. page 121). Others have been taken in a hamlet in the Kajo Kaji area and reported from “four Equatoria Province rest houses north of Nimule".
Ixodids were frequently observed in houses but the only one retained with data was an adult lepidum.
Wherever chickens are confined in any numbers in Juba, Torit,
and Eastern Districts A. Ersicus can be found. Few specific data were retained but numerous casual observations were made.
A cote at Juba twice yielded a few A. reflexus but additional material could not be found on subsequent vi sits. Other cotes at Juba were uninfested. Pigeon cotes elsewhere in the Sudan were
not investigated .
The same remarks as for poultry houses (above) apply to the
hosts themselves. At Torit, twelve nymphs of A. variegatum were also found on chickens.
Seven nymphs of A. variegatum infested a tukey at Katire.
Large numbers of ticks collected from domestic mammals allow generalized conclusions concerning distribution and host predilection. Systematic collections throughout the year and throughout the Province were not undertaken. Eastern District, the mountains of the east bank, and the area west of Yei deserve more attention. Significant data should be obtained from more intensive collecting during the rainy season.
There were probably no more than fifty horses in Equatoria Province during the period of the present study and it is unlikely that many of these remain. Ticks found on horses at Torit and Juba were nymphal A. varie atum, nymphs and adults of §. decolora. tps, and adult R. E. evertsi, E. s. sanguineus, and §.‘§. simus.
Small numbers of donkeys are maintained by the Taposa of Eastern District and by small tribes in this area but these animals were not examined for ticks. Nymphs of B. decoloratus have been taken from a donkey at More (Yei Riverl.
Fewer than fifty pigs were seen, all at Torit and Katire. A few pigs kept at Amadi did not thrive. At Katire, nine nymphal
§. varie atum were the only ticks on fou pigs. At Torit, several adults o%‘§. s. simus could be found on each pig whenever a search was made and '99 were collected along with single males of _e_.
evertsi and §.4§. sanguineus. DOGS
Dogs maintained by the few Europeans previously living in Equatoria Province were deticked every day or two and yielded the same species found on pie_dogs. Infestations of pie_dogs, often tremendous, were characterized by preponderance of R. s.
san neus in pactically every collection throughout the'Pr3v_ ince, smaller numbers of R. s. simus almost everywhere, and a
paucity of Q. 1. leachii.‘ The IasE:named tick, which in Equa. toria Province_appears to be more common on dogs at high alti_ tudes, is represented by about 45 specimens, but the subspecies H. 1. muhsami by only a single specimen. In Eastern and Torit Districts, I. le idum and R. pravus parasitize dogs; near the Nile a few in ts o R. simus sene alensis have been taken. A single female §. decoloratus was found at Gilo. The localization of_§. varie atum infestations is of some interest. This ubiquitous tick was found on dogs only at Katire and Kajo Kaji. Both localities are at higher elevations than the plains and received less attention than Torit and the surrounding country.
Cattle are so frequently of considerable importance in sup. porting and transporting large numbers of ticks of known or poten. tial medical and veterinary importance that special consideration should be given to cattle history, breeds, numbers, husbandry, and movements wherever a tick survey is attempted.
Before the devastating slave raids of the nineteenth century cattle were more numerous in areas bordering the Nile than now. Since the low ebb of that period, herds of livestock have varied greatly due to epidemics, encroachment of tsetse flies, and intertribal relations. The largest cattle populations occur in Eastern District, eastern Torit District, and the Kajo Kaji area. Elsewhere small herds are maintained in isolated situations but west of Yei cattle are rare indeed.
Luxmoore (1950) lists three breeds of cattle in this Province.
The huge, big humped, short legged, short horned Taposa breed of Eastern District is guessed to number from 60,000 to 70,000 head. It will be generations before a thorough stuy of cattle_tick relations can be undertaken in this fascinating, wild area. The second, or Mongalla breed, is a dwarf East African zebu, less
than four feet high, with thin skin, fine coat, nervous disposition, and considerable agility. This isolated mountain breed is much less comon than the Taposa. The Didinga mountain cattle
may represent a separate breed. Long_horned Nilotic type cattle, for which the Sudan is famed, are kept in small numbers near the Nile by the Mandari, Bari, and Nyangwara tribes. Nilotic cattle were frequently brought into various parts of the Province, mostly for slaughter, duing the period of the present study. In Torit District small herds of mixed Mongalla.Taposa breeds exist in tsetse-free areas. Juba District, once an important cattle area, now possesses only small herds as does Yei District except for
the Kajo Kaji area. A strong cattle tradition from the nineteenth century persists in this area. A hundred square miles of tsetse_ free area around Kajo Kaji support some 15,000 Kuku tribesmen and some 6000 head of Mongalla cattle. Westward, very few cattle are maintained except for a few government herds and isolated groups such as the Lanya herd that remains to this day after having been saved from Arab slave traders by being hidden in Lanya Hill caves.
A. varie atum is repesented in practically every collection from cattle tgroughout the Province but the few collections from
the west bank contain many more specimens than those from the
east bank. B. decoloratus, also comon from Torit westward, is rare or absent east of Torit except in the mountains. Varying numbers of R. e. evertsi frequently parasitize cattle in many parts of the P¥ovince. Several species are common only in certain Districts. IA. lepidum and R. rayus, most numerous in Eastern District, are less common in Tor t istrict and extremely rare
or absent to the west. B. annulatus is scattered throughout the west bank but rare or ab§ent on the east bank except possibly in the mountains. Other species entirely or largely restricted to
east bank mountains are H. aciculifer, H. armata, and R. kochi. Species that are almostnentirely restricteg to Yei District are
R. a endiculatus, R. muhlensi, and A. mposum; the latter two are rare. 35211 collections from scattered localities include