Page images

_I:_I. rufi s, Li. truncatum, 3. sa_.r_1%neus, and R. s. simus. An exceptionally large collection 0 t e as named-species from Juba is inexplicable.


Smaller numbers of sheep run with the goat herds of east bank tribes. Ebccept for the Taposa fat.-tailed breed of Eastern District and a few in mountainous areas, Fquatoria sheep are "miserable

little beasts that always look prepared to give up the unequal struggle with the least encouragement" (Luxmoore 1950).

Ticks are seldom if ever numerous on sheep in this Province. Small numbers of R. e. evertsi are found everywhere. In Eastern

District R. avT1s is common and A. le idum occurs on some hosts. In Yei Districé, F _ ' I

. ndiculatus parasit zes sheep in some num. bers. Small numbers 0g 1. varie atum, B. decoloratus, H. truncatum, R. 3. san ‘neus, and R.-s. simus also attack sheep in Various localities. _ _

[merged small][graphic]

Goats are kept by all tribes from Yei District eastward and large numbers exist in Torit District where they largely substitute for cattle as food and dowry. Although far from impressive in ap_ pearance, goats thrive on the east bank and in parts of Yei Dis. trict. Their importance as tick hosts is difficult to assess. Hundreds were found to be free of ticks but several collections

suggest that goats must not be overlooked in epidemiological considerations .

Those goats that are tick infested harbor the same species

as sheep. R. s. sanfléneus, however, is somewhat more numerous and frequent on goa s . s. simus is scarce. In Katire and

Kajo Kaji collections, nymphal varie atum were present in good numbers. At Loronyo and Kajo Kaji large numbers of nymphal E. 3. evertsi were also found.



Small numbers of adults of kochi, §. sang1J._I_1_' eus, E. s. simus, and simus senealensis and _I. varie atum were collected from grass at various oc 1. ies. The only specim' ens of A. rhino.

cerotis, _1_)_. E. circumgttatus, and rhinocerinus known Trom the §Ean were taken on grass.

[merged small][graphic]

Mammal burrows and dens should be carefully studied in Equatoria Province. A special trip planned to investigate this impor. tant aspect of tick biology was cancelled due to unsettled condi... tions in southern Sudan. See pages 792 and 793.

B!-".HR EL GH,’~\Z.‘\L F’RO\/ll\*£;E*

All statements below pertain to the Galua.]..Nyang Forest unless other localities are specified. For a description of this forest, see Reid (1955). The Galua_L.Nyang Forest, Yirol, and Wau areas have been moderately well explored for ticks, although much remains to be accomplished in this region. Scattered records for other localities noted on Figure 3 have been obtained. The western half of the Province should yield many interesting new data.


*Data from this Province result chiefly from the energy and interest of Mr. E. T. M. Reid, veterinary entomologist, and to his associates on the Tsetse Survey and Reclamation Team, Messrs. N. A. Hancock, A. W. Wild, P. J. Henshaw, W. I. A. Dees, P. Blasdale, and H. C. Brayne, under the direction of Mr. T. W. Chorley. Our own visit

to Han and the GaluaL.Nyang Forest, at the invitation of Mr. J.

T. R. Evans, formerly Director, Sudan Veterinary Service, and as

a guest of Mr. Chorley, produced many worthwhile specimens and observations due largely to the courtesy and assistance of the persons mentioned above. In this and the following Provinces, 8 small amount of host data omitted from the main body of this work

are included.

The western half of Bahr El Ghazal is poor, hilly country Lth uneven rainfall, more or less dense forests with tsetse flies, rid few permanent herds of cattle. The eastern half is character. zed by rich dry season meadows, or toich, along the numerous rivers, everal lakes, and the northern “Nile sponge" area that becomes a ast lake during the rains. Large numbers of livestock are mai.n_ ained in eastern Bahr El Ghazal and restricted populations of be big game animals of Africa reach their northern limit here.


No records for monitor lizards or tortoises are available from this Province. A number of specimens of A. latum have been taken from cobras and pythons in the eastern sector.



Infestations of Francolinus cla rtoni by nymphs of A. varie atum in the Forest area are H88.Vli er and much more common {E5 éhose observed in Equatoria. A female 11. _l_1. hoodi was found on a tchagra shrike. Near the Kordofan border andTea_r Yirol several adults of R. s. san 'neus and a single male A. lepidum, respectively, were taken from two greater bustards.


Thirty HEDGEHOGS, Atelerix uneri oweni, were examined; six were infested by two to four%H'{-_. _s_. san neus and a total of five male H. leachii muhsami. A male emale of the latter tick were also collected from a hedgehog by Mr. Reid.

Although Mr. Reid examined some BATS, no ticks were obtained.

Among primates, some fifty GALAGOS, or bushbabies, examined by Dr. T. Work am the writer were uninfested. A number of BABOONS from several large families throughout the Forest were also free of ticks, but all old male hobos wandering alone were infested by several to two hundred adult R. _s_. simus. British Museum (Natural History) collections contain a few adult R. 3.

s 'neus from a baboon at Kenisa (on the Bahr E1 Ghazal Upper Nile border).

HARES were seldom collected. Seven adult _s_. sanguineus specimens from one host are represented.

GROUND SQUIRRELS, Euxerus eghrfi subsp., are conmon in the Forest. Five squirrels oht n in ebruary yielded twelve males, six females, and four nymphs of hogyi.

Small MURID RCDENTS have not been collected and searched in this Province. Twelve male and six female 1-I. leachii muhsami were found on a small rodent burrowing in a termite mound.

CANE RATS (THRYONCMXIDAE) are not known to be infested by R. sim soni in this Province but an unusual record of two male R. s. s mus from a cane rat at Yirol was obtained by Mr. Reid, Trho-also found a nymph of A. variegatum on a cane rat 37 miles west of Yirol. '

CARNIVWES have received considerably less attention than

antelopes, buffalos, giraffes, and warthogs in this Province.

A black-legged mongoose in the Forest (May) was infested by sixteen adult H. leachii muhsami, another at Yirol (January) by only a single male of tifls species. A leopa.rd 36 miles south of Yirol bore two males of the same tick as well as a male and three females of R. sulcatus. Another mongoose in the Forest was infested by_~R. _§. SiIIIlJ.S, a tick also represented by a single male from a hyena, seven adults from a leopard, and a male from a lion. A hyena at Yirol yielded a male H. 1. leachii and seven adult R. s. simus. It is of some interest that no specimens of §. stangéneus were recovered from carnivores.


ELEPI-[ANTS in this Province appear to be outside the geographic range of their usual parasites, A. tholloni and D. _c_. circ ttatus. Small to moderately large num§rs of R._s. si mus % R. simus sene alensis infested every elephant e§amined i'n the southeastern spur of this Province (including Kenisa on the Upper Nile Province border). In the case of _s_. simus, both sexes were taken on elephants during each season of the year. Mr. Chorley, who shot several elephants in the western pa.rt of the Province, stated that no ticks infested these animals.

No specimens of RHINOCEOS were examined but seven male and six female D. rhinocerinus on grass from two localities near Yirol suggest this‘ tick's i'hfestation of those animals that do occur.

WARTHOGS were common in the Forest. Ticks from six hosts

'were :


Host Month 6‘ Q
1 Jan 2 18 simus sene alensis
Feb . cus idatus
3 Feb 1 3. sinus
9 31 . cus id ‘ins
1; Al!1+ 1 3. afi-
Jun 1 . simus sene alensis
2 6 K. cus Idatus
6 Sep 1 I. varfe atum
1 F. ricus s
3 s. s mus
5 . 3 ms sene alensis
9 's'i7mF subspecies

Discovery of the eyeless tampan, Q. moubata in three warthog burrows in the Forest area is of extreme interest (pages 121,129,

144,149) .

A HIPPOPOTAMUS shot in the Jur River, in the northeastern corner of the Province, in April had nine male and one female §.

3. simus on its ears.


GIRAFFES in northeastern Bahr El Ghazal comprise one of the most northern populations of these animals in eastern Africa. The first four hosts on the table (page 813) were taken at Liednhom on the south bank of the Jur River, near the Galual._Nyang Forest where the remainder of the hosts were secured. Data for the num. ber of giraffes examined but free of ticks were not obtained. The chief tick species infesting thirty hosts are listed in the table

on page 813 .

There were no significant differences between infestations of male and female hosts. The only ticks in addition to those listed in the table were a male R. a. sinus (Host 3), two male A. lepidum (Hosts 8 and 17), and a £1.95. tricuspis (Host 30).

Inasmuch as cattle passing the boundaries of this area are heavily infested by variegatum, the absence of this tick on

« PreviousContinue »