Page images

one to twenty. The July.August figures probably represent the

peak reproductive season of A. varie atum. A single dry season collection from Wau (February), no c uded in the breakdown above, was exceptional in that eight females and 35 males were found on a single cow. Nymphs were carefully senched for on many large cattle herds in the Forest area in February but fewer than a dozen were found. This is in notable contrast to the invariable infestation

of tiang by nymphs in January and February.

Other species common on cattle in this Province are B. deco. loratus and Q. anmilatus. In the dry season, B. decoloratus was approx-Limately ten tlmes as comnnn as Q. mmatm~ the rains the ratio became more equalized a~ collections B. annulatus exceeded B. decoloratus in numbers. 8. decoloratus is represented in all Eollectlons from this Provinhe. Very llght infestations of rufi s are frequent but H. truncatmn is rep. resented by only seven gults in three collehtions. Eceptional parasites of cattle are A. le idum (three adults in two collec. tions), R. s. simus (six_ s n two collections), and a single female RT of ev5Rsi. This last named tick is so commn on sheep, goats, &f~ Bahr Kl. Ghazal. that its almost complete ab. sence on cattle is strilcing; it is also common in Eluatoria Prov. ince collections from cattle.

GOATS and SHEEP are infested chiefly by R. 2. evertsi, most collections containing only this species. Other ticfi on these animals are 5. variegatum and E. decoloratus.

[merged small][graphic]

Available data for this poorly explored Province refer chief. ly to localities in the vicinity of Nile steamer wood stations and,

as or s ov ce are rom sever oso spec mens Sudan Government and British Museum (Natural History) collections and small amunts of material obtained by personnel of the Stfian Veterinary Service and by the writer. In this report, some references to Kenisa, on the Upper Nile.Bahr Kl Ghazal border, are included under the latter Province.

to a lesser eurtent, along the Sobat River and the Malaka.1...Juba land track. Host.tick relationships in this Province are probably similar to those of the east bank of Equatoria Province. Some East Lfrican species not yet recorded from the Sudan may occur near the Ethiopian border.

As one travels northwards in this Province the big game animals of Africa gradually decrease in numbers and disappear. Er Renk is the northern boundary of the fine, lean, naked Nilotic tribes of Negro Africa; further on the country is inhabited by white..gowned Arabs of unique personal dignity and character.


Cobras at Kenisa, Nasir, and Er Renk have been found in_ fested with 5 latum while 5. exornatum has been collected from monitor lizards at Er Rank.


R. s. s we and R. s. simus were taken from lesser
mstids'at~ - - i


BABOONS are infested by_I_i. 2. sinms.
GROUND SQUIRRES at Bor were the source of ii. hogi.
A LION at Akzobo Post was parasitized by single pairs of

R. simus R. s. s neus and H. 1. leachii and aLEOPAR.D it or '3. pair o? E. 3. simus.“ '


Probable infestation of RHINKXIEROS is indicated by King's specimens of rhinocerotis from grass near Bor.


UARTHOGS and WILD PIGS shot near Duk Fadiat were hosts of numerous _§. variegatum and R. 2. simus.


Two BITFFALOS at Rom were infested by six male and four fa. male lepidum (July).

A ROAN ANTELOPE at Kaka supplied four male lepidum and one female R. s. simus. A TORA HARTEBEEST on the Daga. gille

track yield-ed -a few female decoloratus. MAN

Two male R. s. s eus feeding on man at Melut were sent for identlfibatlon.

[merged small][graphic][merged small]

HCRSES, DONKEYS, and MULES are attacked chiefly by R. evertsi but several collections including A. lepidum and decoloraius

have also been made and others contain . _s. ~ EB. annulatus. "


A PIG at Maban was infested by two decoloratus and three R. 2. evertsi.


DOGS at it Rank and Bor were the source of two unusual tick

records, one female Ixodes nairobiensis and one male R. supp

r.. tritus having been secura E Kin' g. The first tick i's' _t e only one of this species known from the Sudan and the second, not known from other specimens in this Province, is rare wherever it occurs.

Infestation by leachii is known only from Sobat; special efforts made to secure this tick at Malakal were unsuccessful.

R. _s. sangneus is represented in all collections.

CATTLE density, breeds, and handling habits here are in general similar to those of Bahr El Ghazal and long east_west migrations are undertaken in search of grazing. Herds observed

in Upper Nile were invariably parasitized by A. varie atum and B. decoloratus. Frequently included were smaller nérs of A.

lepidum, B. annulatus, H. rufipps, R. e. evertsi, R. s. san eus, ‘

. s.-sinnis. Inclusion 0 last two rHIpic'5phTali s, no

ordi?,ar‘i'1y"f'“ound on cattle in the Sudan, is difficult to explain, yet several collections from different localities contain a number

of specimens. Infestations of R. e. evertsi are similar to those of Equatoria but heavier and more Videly spread than those of Bahr KL Ghazal. truncatum is represented by only a single collection from Malcler.


SHE and GOATS have furnished specimens of lepidum, R. 3. evertsi, §_. 3. sanggneus, 2. simus.



Northvard from the El Arab (River) that separates Darfur

from Bahr El Ghazal Province, the landscape gradually changes from tell to short grasslands with fewer and fewer trees and thence to

desert scrub and extreme desert conditions. Few big game animals exist across the Bahr El Arab and those that do are confined to the southern periphery of Darfiir. Camels make their first appearance here and horses and donkeys are considerably more common than here. tofore. Cattle and sheep abound. Volcanic, fertile, terraced Jebel Marra, with an altitude of almost 10,000 feet, is unexplored for ticks. Differences in the tick faunae of plains, hills, and mountains, and various kinds of grasslands remain to be investi... gated.


A FOX was infested by R. s. simus and another (Vulpes pallida) by 5- 2- ~- ' '

[merged small][graphic][merged small][graphic]

“Most data for Darfur are from material collected by Sudan Veter. inary Service personnel from domestic animals in six areas in the central part of the Province during the dry season. Scattered records in Sudan Government collections have also been obtained.

[merged small][graphic]

GAMES, common in the north, graze down to the southern grass lands in the dry season but not to the Bahr El Arab toich. These animals transport goods throughout northern and central Sudan.

They are infested chiefly by H. rufi s, possibly the most common tick of Darfur, and frequently by sfier numbers of H. dromedarii,

H. i eltatum H. i essum and H. truncatum. O. saw-ri I also '5ccurs E R.,s_. slums Is p1,'esent_in a sfigle collection. Few specimens 01' H: d?oEaa.rii from camels are included but most col.lections from-Darfur cattle include several. specimens of this

D(MESI‘IC RABBITS are parasitized by R. 3. ~.


DOGS carry R. s. sggeus and a single lot of H. l. leachii has been obtained. - -

HGISES, DGUCEXS, and MULES are common and of good breeds. They are usually infested by a number of B. decoloratus and _l_i. rufi es. Most collections also contain HT dI‘OE8.I‘ll| , H.

I ess

um, and truncatum and several Inclfide H. I eltatum, R. s. san ' eus, E35. 3. simus. Q. savi@yi has gee Eon

Eollec rom a horse .


CATTLE and goats and sheep are numerous in Darfur. It is said that sheep are more comnnn and important than goats here. Cattle migrate over a wide area, feeding on the Bahr El Arab toich during the dry season and grazing up to 13°N. during the rains.

Herds in each of the areas represented are most heavily par. asitized by rufi s, the total number of specimens of which equal those of El otfier species. Also colmnon but fewer in numbers are H. dromedarii, H. truncatum, H. im ressum, and H. i 1.. tatum. A-f~s '5f ~,_A. vari'e atum, _B_.'-deco o.. ratus and R. 3. sggneus Tire so pre§ent.


GOATS and SHEEP include R. 2. evertsi in all collections but this tick has not been folmd on other Darfur hosts. Less numerous

but frequent are R. s. sEg§neus H. rufi s and H. truncatum. Single collection§ cbnt _. romedar rom,goats and _B. decolo_

ratus from sheep.

« PreviousContinue »