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KASSALA PROVINCE *

Grading from a small area of acacia tall grass forest in the extreme south to large wastes of barren desert in the north, Kassala, by reason of its hilly character and humid sea breezes, undoubtedly supports a number of tick species not yet recorded from this Province. A few miles north of Kassala Province, in Egypt, we have found Ornithodoros foleyi, and H. truncatum fol lows the coastal plain to its northern Tímit just Inside Egypt. Excellent riding camels are a notable product of Kassala and camels and goats are common throughout the Province except in the inland deserts. Cattle herds range from the south to some what north of Port Sudan and sheep are common in the same area except in the far south,

WILD ANIMALS

The presence of A. brumoti at Erkowit indicates parasitism of reptiles and small mammals. A. exornatum has been taken from a Varanus LIZARD in the Butana area. HARE at Sinkat was in fested by R. s. sanguineus.

MAN

0. savignyi has been taken feeding on human beings, near a well, and in several other situations (page 191).

DOMESTIC FOWLS

A. persicus has been found at Suakin.

DOMESTIC MAMMALS

CAMELS at Kassala are infested by numerous H. dromedarii and fewer numbers of H. excavatum, H. marginatum, H. rufipes and R. s. sanguineus. 0. savignyi Is also presento (page 191).

*Dry and early rainy season data for livestock parasites from sev. eral localities were provided by Mr, M. J. Henigan of the Sudan Veterinary Service. Sudan Government, British Museum (Natural History), and the HH collections have added a few additional records.

DOGS at all localities surveyed are heavily infested by R. 5. sanguineus. In May at Port Sudan, 4h nymphs of this tick and a few adult H. 1. leachii were also taken.

HORSES and DONKEYS are parasitized chiefly by H. excavatum and by fewer H. detritum, H. dromedarii, H. impeltatum, R. e. evertsi, and R. 3. sanguinzus.

CATTLE bear chiefly H. dromedarii, H. excavatum, H. impel tatum, H. rufipes, and H. truncatum, along with fewer A. Tepidum, H. detritum, and R. e. evertsi.

GOATS and SHEEP yield chiefly H. excavatum and R. s. sangui. neus, and fewer H. truncatum and R. e. evertsi.

KHARTOUM PROVINCE*

Khartoum Province, a small area around the capital, Khartoum, industrial town, Khartoum North, and residential and marketing center, Omdurman, is a region of poor grass acacia scrub with no special biological features except for small, irrigated gardens along the Nile. Large numbers of horses, donkeys, camels, sheep, and goats live here or come into the Province, and some cattle are maintained.

The presence of a zoological garden and of a cattle quaran tine station brings many wild and domestic animals with a large variety of ticks into the Khartoum area and several exotic records for this locality appear to have been based on material of species not established in this Province.

AVES

King reared H. rufipes from nymphs from a KITE, Milvus migrans. Adults of R. s. sanguineus were found on another kite.

*Khartoum data derive from the writer's collections, a few lots in Sudan Government collections, and four lots sent by Sudan Veterinary Service personnel.

MAMMALIA

BATS are parasitized by A. confusus and A. vespertilionis.

RODENTS in the desert often bear larvae and nymphs of Hyalomma ticks; immature tick specimens of this genus have not yet been identified. A FOX shot near Khartoum bore a number of H. 1. leachii and another four male H. 1. muhsami and several R.

s. sanguineus.

DOMESTIC FOWLS

A. persicus is common in Khartoum and Omdurman.

DOMESTIC MAMMALS

CAMELS yield large numbers of H. excavatum, H. dromedarii and R. s. sanguineus, and smaller numbers of H. impeltatum and H. rufipes. 0. savignyi is common here.

DOGS bear R. s. sanguineus and less commonly H. 1. leachii, H. dromedarii, H. excavatum, and H. rufipes.

HORSES and DONKEYS are parasitized chiefly by H. excavatum but also bear good numbers of H. impeltatum, H. dromedarii, H. excavatum, H. rufipes, R. e. evertsi, and A. s. sanguineus and a few B. decoloratus. Small populations of the last named species appear to be established in irrigated gardens along the Nile.

CATTLE provide H. dromedarii, H. excavatum, and R. S. sanguineus, and fewer H. impeltatum and H. rufipes.

SHEEP and GOATS are parasitized by the same species as cattle, except that R. e. evertsi is also common on them.

NORTHERN PROVINCE *

Small herds of domestic animals are maintained in the narrow trip of cultivation along the Nile. Away from the Nile, Northern rovince is a vast barren desert that supports little life. The ew available tick collections are from the Nile area. Xerophilic ick species undoubtedly remain to be discovered in the desert.

MAMMALIA

BATS at Dongola are infested by A. confusus and A. vesperilionis. FOXES in the desert near the Nile rarely bear R. S. simus, more commonly H. 1. leachii and R. s. sanguineus. The Latter tick has also been found on HARES.

DOMESTIC FOWLS

A. persicus occurs in a number of localities along the Nile.

DOMESTIC MAMMALS

CAMEL yards frequently contain 0. savignyi. H. dromedarii is the chief tick parasite of camels but H. excavatum, rufipes, and R. s. sanguineus also occur on them.

DOGS are infested by R. s. sanguineus and H. excavatum.

HORSES and DONKEYS bear H. excavatum and fewer H. dromedarii, rufipes, and R. s. sanguineus.

CATTLE yield H. dromedarii and H. excavatum; less commonly H. rufipes and R. s. sanguineus; rarely R. S. Simus at Shendi.

SHOP and GOATS harbor H. excavatum and R. s. sanguineus. At Shendi a few R. e. evertsi occur.

*Northern Province data were obtained by Sudan Veterinary Service personnel and the writer. A few lots from this Province are in Sudan Government collections.

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MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE (°C)

(TO 1940)

Figure 323
MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE OF THE SUDAN
From Ireland (1948). In: Agriculture in the Sudan.
With permission of Oxford Press and Sudan Government.7

PLATE XIC

830

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