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Two East African species, A. le idum and R. ravus are especially interesting in that they'are gypical of-the apoeta Area

(Figure 328) and extend to Torit but little if any further west into Equatoria Province. The reduced rainfall and consequent modification of vegetation in the Kapoeta Area has already been noted (pages 836,838,839). E. pavus is unknown elsewhere in the Sudan; A. le idum does spill over via the Eastern Floodplain to the Cen_ tral Rain ands where it is often common. A. le idum is a species strictly confined to East African areas with resuced rainfall while 2. pravus, though most comon in the same areas, has a number of restricted outlying populations in southern and western Africa.

It is therefore noteworthy that A. le idum appears to be more aggressive in its Sudanese distribu ion an R. ravus. Reasons for these differences should be sought among the various factors noted for uneven tick distribution (pages 845 to 848).

A. cohaerens, a strictly East African species that reaches

its western limits in eastern Belgian Congo, is also known in the Sudan chiefly from the Kapoeta Area and questionably from adjacent parts of the Torit Area. h. be uaerti of Torit and Raga_Loka Areas is confined to East Africa except for a single known population in western Sudan; this tick belongs to a group of hyrax parasitizing species not known otherwise to occur in West Africa. R. a ndicu_ latus, on the other hand, is chiefly an East African species, BEE in the Sudan occurs only in the Imatong forests and a small corner of the Raga_Loka Area, where it is common. R. a endiculatus requires a more humid environment than many East Afirican species and is therefore absent in most East African areas of the Sudan. Populations of this tick also occur in the highlands of Central and southeastern Africa, probably in part due to movements of cattle.

East African components typical of arid areas not infrequent. ly extend their range into the Southwest Arid District (south. western Union of South Africa, Ovamboland, Angola). An example of this pattern is_A. brumpti. The ability of this species to reach and survive in dry niches such as hyrax dens in otherwise humid areas may account for its wide distribution and presence in areas that appear unsuitable for its survival. Although_A. brum ti thrives and is best known from dry areas, its range of humisity toleration may be more extensive than presently realized. The general outline of the distribution of Q. saviynyi in Africa is somewhat similar to that of A. brumpti.

H. l-. l'e'achIi , H.-'ruTiEs, E trunca um.

. East African components of montane forests, I. schillingsi ad 2.. compgsitus, have already been mentioned (page

, Species not already discussed are in pa.rt too poorly known j: be designated as typically East African or as typically South frican. Examples are A. marmoreum (group), R. Ydistinctus,

nd I. rasus ?subspecie§, the exact relationships of wfich are ‘till 1fi'1EoT1n. Others, such as R. arnoldi, R. muhlensi, and E.

upertritus, are widely spread but data are so few E incom

'» e e t a they shed little light on ecology or distribution aatterns.

A certain group of species that commonly attack domestic animals and that tolerate a moderately low to medium range of

iumidity factors are widely distributed throughout the Ethiopian Faunal Region. They are common in much of the Union of South ‘Africa, in western Africa, and in the Sudan. In the Sudan, their range includes the Central Rainlands and sometimes even fairly arid areas such as the Red Sea Hills and coastal plains. The -outstanding examples of this group of pan...Ethiopian species

are R. s. simus, R. e. evertsi, R. s. sang‘ eus, decoloratus,

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Another important group of species is almost as widely spread as those listed above but their apparent demand for high temper.

\ ature and a medium humidity range restricts them from much of the

Union of South Africa and from the northern savannahs (Fasher_ Butane Area) of the Sudan. These species are often common in western and eastern Africa as far south as Mozambique. The outstanding example is A. variegatum. H. h. hoodi, H. aciculifer,

and A. tholloni are other species in"th'i's group. supe'¥'ErItus and fihlensi might also be considered in this category.

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Species apparently largely confined in Sudan to Imatong Area nontane

forests: H. oarmata, R. be uaerti, compositus, R. kochi, I. I sc5III ' _ _

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alluaudi, §. Sl!T1El8-)-C, _. ingsi.
Species of questionable relationships in Sudan: A. reflexus,

m osum, R. loniicoxatus, h. detritum, H. marginatum.

- 854..

MISC PLLANEOUS PARASITES

‘ CENTRAL RAGIL RAIN_. FASHEIL. REA LOKA KAPOEIA PLAIN LANDS BUTANA BLIYUDA BEJA

. moubata

L. Brum E1

:. $ueE1

'. coausus

'.. ves erfilionis ‘-. cofiaerens

3. marmoreum '.. nu¥'€aI1

'.. rfiinocerotis {. {HoIIon1'

él. exornaium

11. Ta'T$T__

‘5. c. chic.

' . Yhinoc ennus

8.0 1.0 E1181‘

Law

L L S S U U L U C L L I L . E 118-EH1. L . 5. 50031‘ L I C I C

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. s . senegalensis

. sulc atus

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SYMBOLS

ZN Numerous in certain areas R Rare

:10 Common generally * Rare or absent west of Torit;
I" L Localized, apparently not numerous i.e. , chiefly in Kapoeta. Area.

U Incidence uncertain S Suspected to occur
I Imatong range extension

_ 855

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I ,0 v A - .\\i\\\" 95-14 ,,. iian/Yuan AREA M5

-0' _ . ;\ \ '

‘I “ \\\‘

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.: xx "\\\\ -I

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I

I O, Ti
Fm-:uc\H 2| 'RAG‘A-LOKA

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~=' + I “|l|i.§~ . I > ‘».~ hf .; ._I.Y
' \ A “""' ' V
.. I l oi as :“Ji‘Wim“ ‘I
...,., _|

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A 1 ARE , EO‘UATO‘RlAL as _ I .. r 2 1 .- . 0' ‘‘“_''/’'§ \' ‘+ V Lg! ;'m-8L“-~:§!;_.:L4' Q I I BELGIAN couco I I I A

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I ‘row?/r AREA

'-_/NATO/V6‘ AREA ,. 4 1 LP IO‘ 30' SI’ 3!‘ ll‘ 34' DI‘ 30' I7’

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Figure 328

SUDANESE FAUNAL AREAS BASED ON TICK
DISTRIBUTION

PLATE XVIC

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