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Specialized collecting will probably reveal a small but interesting specialized tick fauna mixed with the Fasher-Butana fauna that exists on the coastal plains and in valleys of the eastern slopes of the Red Sea Hills. This Area might be sub divided into a southern sector containing tropical ticks such as R. e. evertsi and B. decoloratus, species that make their last stand among the hyalommas, R. s. sanguineus, and o. savignyi. In the north, even these are lost but Hyalomma and R. S. sanguineus populations are denser than in the desert and undīscovered Palaearctic species are expected to occur. The preponderence of Hyalomma species provides this Area with a strongly Palaearctic aspect. Specialized Somali tick fauna of the more southerly coastal plains is not known to reach the Sudan. The composition of tick species that intrude into this Area has some similarity with that further south along the coast but population densities appear to be much lower.



Additional data and references pertinent to a given species obtained or noticed too late for inclusion in the main body of the text are included herein. For the sake of completeness it is intended that this section be continued in subsequent volumes in an attempt to provide up-to-date information on all species treated.


TASCHENBERG (1873). Egypt. Mention of specimens.

JACK (1910). Southern Rhodesia. Control and general remarks.

WILLCOCKS (1922). Egypt. Remarks on habitats, hosts, importance.

material used for adapting Spanish strain of fowl spiro

OLENEV (1929A,B,1931A, 1934). USSR. Life cycle graphically por

trayed in 1931A report; others deal with distribution.

GRIMALDI (1934). Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia; collecting


PAVLOVSKY (1940). Abnormality. "A heart-like shape of the body

of Argas persicus is described in different degrees of
development. Analogous forms are shown in the literature
in other ticks also (Amblyomma, Ixodes); it is doubtful
that this character, observed in the only tick specimen
in hand, should have any taxonomical significance. I
should hope not! (HH).

SHARMA (1944). Spermatogenesis briefly described.
CHUMAKOV (1954). USSR. Isolation of Q fever (R. burnetii).

TENDEIRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from


SCHULZE (1955). Discussion of metabolic products.

TAYLOR et al (1955). Egypt. Larvae become infected with Sindbis

virus when feeding; nymphs and adults are not susceptible to
paraenteral infection,

WALKER, J. B. (Correspondence). Tanganyika. Although no pub

lished records of the fowl tick appear to be available
from this territory, Mr. Evans, formerly Senior Veterinary
Research Officer there, states that it is certainly present
and in fact widespread in Tanganyika.


OPPERMANN (1935). As A. columbarum: studies on sperm formation,
MACNAY (1954). Canada. Specimens reported, with other ticks,

from a bird's nest in British Columbia. Kohls (correspond
ence) finds that these specimens are similar to those

referred to as A. reflexus elsewhere in North America. PETRISHEVA (1955). USSR.

USSR. Presence in certain areas, with res.. pect to control of disease foci.

SCHULZE (1955). As A. columbarum: discussion of metabolic

products. BOETTGER & REICHENBACH KLINKE (1955). Germany. As A. columbarum:

well documented and illustrated account of syndrome in
person following tickbite.


kistan. Parasite of field sparrows and host and vector of
c. burnetii (Q fever).


MOUCHET, J. (1956 correspondence). Cameroons. A male specimen from

a warthog burrow, Waza, North Cameroons, sent for identification, represents the first population known from West Africa and a new host record.


GRIMALDI (1934). Libya (page 508). Nomen nudum, probably mis

print for Boophilus annulatus.


SPEISER (1909). Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean.

of two specimens.


GRIMALDI (1934). Libya. As O. franchinii, collecting localities.


FRANCHINI (1927). Libya. Erroneous report, refers to O. foleyi. GRIMALDI (1934). Libya. Repetition of Franchini.


MASSEY (1908). Angola. Tick common in Benguela District.
JACK (1910). Control and general remarks, apparently not based on

personal observation.

SCHOUTEDEN (1929). Belgian Congo. Abundant in Kivu.
GRIMALDI (1934). Libya. Erroneous report. Eritrea, Ethiopia,

and Somalia, collecting localities.

CHERRY (1955). Uganda. Summary: "A campaign using a water

miscible preparation of BH and simple equipment against
0. moubata in heavily infested areas is described and
Its effects on the incidence of relapsing fever assessed.
The cost is low and its success favors the acceptance of
other public health measures by primitive communities".
Other observations on therapeutics of the disease in human

beings. *This species is not known from the Sudan (cf. pages 114 and 115).

WALTON (1955). Kenya and neighboring areas of Tanganyika. A val uable account of conditions under which 0. moubata exists in Digo (Kwale) District and epidemiology of relapsing fever, this report of an unique area should point the way for further comparative research under a variety of conditions. Although settled tribes engage in fishing and a small amount of animal husbandry, farming, and home industries, there is quite a little movement of peoples. On the sandy coastal plain, vegetation varies from short grasslands with forest patches to grasslands with open bush and termite mound dominated islands of vegetation giving way to scant thorn bush in the interior. Rain falls each month (50 to 60 inches annual at coast, 30 to 40 inches in hinterland). Mean air temperature is 80°F., RH at 0830 about 79%, falling to 70% at 1430.

Domestic fowls are an important source of blood meals for 0. moubata in huts (cf. pages 128,129,147,148,150,181), 113 of 124 semples being positive for fowl blood by the precipitin test. In another sample of 25 ticks from Tiwi, all had fed on fowls alone (the question of chickens preying on ticks is not considered). Ticks were not found on the fowls or in their nests, but usually in dusty cracks, holes, or depressions in the floor near chickens' roosting places. Scarcity of chickens and absence of ticks in damp houses is (inconclusively) correlated.

Other blood meals among the 124 samples mentioned above were eight for man only, two for man and fowl, and one for sheep or goat (from this it would appear either that fowls are more accessible and therefore more frequently utilized as hosts or else that the author was possibly dealing with a fowl blood adapted strain HH). It could not be demonstrated that the presence of sheep and goats in dry or in humid areas acted as a deterrent to ticks (cf. pages 127,128,147), also, it does not appear from this study that sheep and goats are frequently parasitized.

Bedsteads are a definite deterrent to tick infestation (cf. pages 147 and 180) because ticks have difficulty in climbing smooth legs, bedlegs do not break the floor, and sweeping and repairing floors is easier. More primitive beds are easily reached and provide shelter for ticks. Broken floors are favor. able to the tick (cf. pages 146 and 180).

Human urination in huts, as a single factor, cannot be correlated with tick infestation. Coastal strip recent sediments

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