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GANIEV (1954). USSR. H. detritum and H. scupense, short ecolog

ical notes from Ural District middle stream.

SURBOVA (1955). Bulgaria. H. scupense, distribution, biology,

ecology, epidemiology. (Not translated).

GAJDUSEK (1956). USSR. Uzbekdstan hemorrhagic fever. H.

detritum feeds on man and is considered a possible vector of virus; organism has been isolated from this tick; brief review of host data.


cf. page 440. USSR. H. turkmeniense is included under H. exca

vatum on the basis of Delpy's (1949B) surmise that It may
be a synonym of H. excavatum. Pomerantzev (1950), however,
considers H. turkmeniense to be a synonym of H. dromedarii

(= H. asiaticum).
FRANCHINI (1927%). Libya. Collected at Giarabub.


USSR. As H. dromedarii asiaticum: description. As H. pavlovskyi: note ?H. excavatum). Is H. kozlovi: description; considered by Pomerantzev (1950) as a sub

species of H. asiaticum. GRIMALDI (1934). Libya, Somalia, and Yemen. H. dromedarii,

collecting localities.

PERVOMAISKY (1950B). USSR. H. dromedarii males mate with fe_

male H. anatolicum excavatum, whica act as unfertilized
females remaining on the host for a month, taking little
blood, and depositing only a few sterile eggs [ see also

Pervomaisky (1954) 7. PERVOMAISKY (1954). USSR. Description of variation in morphology summarized as follows: Most males reach 5.8 mm. in length, fe males 6.1 mm. In average and large males common variables are width of the middle festoon and size and number of subanal shields (division or fragmentation of subanal shields is rare in material in the present collection and appears to be a localized phenome_ non - HH).

HH). In minute males, 1.5 mm. in length, great changes

occur in the adanal shields, which are rounded posteriorly and laterally; the accessories tend to be obsolete, and subanal shields fail to develop (See Hyalommina, pages 520 to 522). Large females are typical of the species but small females have smooth cervical grooves, narrow tail of spiracular plate, and unbanded legs.

H. asiaticum asiaticum and H. asiaticum caucasicum (both considered as synonyms of H. dromedarii by Delpy - HHT are here considered as separate geographical races with distinct morphological characteristics. Under experimental conditions they mate readily and produce fertile progeny. Male H. a. asiaticum vary from 2.5 mm. to 7.0 mm. in length and from 1.2 mm. to 4.0 mm. in width. Their critical characters are minute punctations com bined with large punctations (both sparse); wide white parma; strongly concave basis capituli; and very narrow tail of spira cular plate. In every lot of H. a. asiaticum, one encounters specimens grading from this subspecies to H. a. caucasicum, males of which measure from 2.5 mm. to 6.0 mm. in length and from 1.2 mm. to 4.0 mm. in width and average 0.5 mm. smaller than those of H. a. asiaticum. Scutal punctations of the two subspecies are similar, on small males of both only minute punctations may be present. The fusion of festoons of H. a. caucasicum is variable; however, the tail of the spiracular plate is wide and the tarsal pads are large, these characters vary but little. Females of H. a. caucasicum differ from fe males of H. a. asiaticum not only by smaller size but chiefly by larger tarsal pads and absence of rings on legs; the width of the tail of the spiracular plate may be either like that of H. a. asiaticum or wider.

Parthenogenetic females of H. dromedarii give rise to many deformed larvae, those that survive are all females not outwardly distinguishable from normal specimens. Both sexes are represented when Fı females are mated with males.

NOTE. Yugoslavia. In various lists of Yugoslavia ticks pre

sented by Oswald (see Bibliography) H. dromedarii or synonyms of this species are not included. The possibility that material mentioned in the following two papers refer to a different species in this genus must be considered. Specimens have been requested from Yugoslavian workers.

MIKACIC (1952 and 1949). Yugoslavia. H. dromedarii present in

Adriatic Islands on domestic animals in spring and early

summer (1949). Relation to piroplasmosis (1952). CVJETANOVIC (1953). Yugoslavia. Tick reservoirs in an epidemic

of fever at Ogulin believed to be R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii. Epidemic commenced at height of spring when Sheep, which were the source of human infection, were most heavily infested by these two species, along with fewer numbers of R. bursa and H. punctata. Patients had no history of Eickbite.


OLENEV (1931B). USSR. As H. savignyi armenorium: Note (syno

nymy uncertain). As H. anatolicum: Notes. MARKOV, KURCHATOV, & MIRZABEKOV (1939). USSR. As H. savignyi

(may refer to H. marginatum): transmission of theilerosis in zebu cattle.

SERDY UKOVA (1941). USSR. As H. anatolicum excavatum: spiro

chetes of Central Asiatic relapsing fever can be trans-
mitted to guinea pigs by inoculation of emulsified in
fected ticks up to 24 hours after having been taken from
infected animals. Similar results obtained with H.
marginatum, D. pictus, and D. marginatus. See also H.

marginatum, page DEMIDOVA (1942). USSR, Uzbekistan. As H. savignyi (see also H. detritum, page 872): remarks appear to apply to H. excavatum rather than to H. marginatum, but this is not certain. All stages of ticks found in cracks of buildings from level of ground to roofs of sheds where cattle sleep; also in holes bored by insects in walls, cracks in poles, and under piles of corn beside stalls. Outside these buildings, numerous males and females were found up to above the height of a man under the loose bark of acacia trees but none were observed in a nearby cracked wooden feeding trough. In other localities, some were collected under plaster but numerous unengorged adults of both sexes sheltered in cracks in walls and under manure as well as in pole holes excavated

by wood boring beetle larvae and under rags on poles supporting the shed. In a borrow pit in which cattle slept, ticks were found in cracked walls of the pit, under turf, etc.


(1950B). USSR. As H. anatolicum excavatum: mating with H. marginatum, synandromorphs. See H. marginatum, page also H. dromedarii above, and Pervomaisky (1954).


USSR. Breeding experiments demonstrate that progeny of H. a. anatolicum may in part resemble H. a. excavatum and that progeny of H. a. excavatum may in part resemble H. a. anatolicum. Critical characters of both subspecies described. Results obtained from parthe nogenetic oviposition are similar to those described above for H. dromedarii. Mosaic cynandromorphs (H. a. anatolicum), after feeding and mating with males of the same species, give rise to normal males and females. (There follow some remarks in support of genetic theories in vogue in the USSR at the time this was written. Similar remarks occur in this author's 1950B paper). Variations, deformities, survival in spite of physical damage, etc., are discussed in some detail.

CHUMAKOV (1954). USSF.. As H.

As H. anatolicum: isolation of fever (c. burnetii) from specimens in Central Asia.

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Figures 329 and 330, 0, dorsal and ventral views.
Figures 331 and 332, o, dorsal and ventral views.

A, & genital area. B to D, o cenital area, outline and profile,

unengorged and unmated. E to G, spiracular plates of (E) "H. sp. no.2," (F) H. excavatun, and (G) ". sp. no.1."


Reared Egyptian Specimens



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