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occur in the adanal shields, which are rounded posteriorly and laterally; the accessories tend to be obsolete, and subanal shields fail 2: develop See H£a1ommina pages 520 to 522). Iarge fe es are typical of t e species but small females have smooth cervical grooves, narrow tail of spiracular plate, and unbanded legs.

H. asiaticum asiaticum and H. asiaticum caucasicum (both considered as synonyms of H. drohedarli E§ Delpy - HF) are here considered as separate geographical races with distinct morphs. logical characteristics. Under experimental conditions they mate readily and produce fertile progeny. Male H. a. asiaticum vary from 2.5 mm. to 7.0 mm. in length and from'l.2'mm. to . m. in width. Their critical characters are minute punctations con; bined with large punctations (both sparse); wide white parma; strongly concave basis capituli; and very narrow tail of spira. cular plate. In every lot of H. a. asiaticum, one encounters specimens grading from this suhspgcies to H. a. caucasicum, males of which easure from 2.5 mm. to 6.0_mmt in ngt and from 1.2 mm. to 4.0 mm. in width and average 0.5 mm. smaller than those of H. a. asiaticum. Scutal punctations of the two subspecies are_similar, on small males of both only minute punctations may be present. The fusion of festoons of_H._a. caucasicum is variable; however, the tail of the spiracular plate is wide and the tarsal pads are large, these characters vary but little. Females of H. a. caucasicum differ from fe. males of H. a. asiaticum not hnly by smaller size but chiefly by larger tatsal phds and absence of rings on legs; the width of the tail of the spiracular plate may be either like that of H. 5. asiaticum or wider.


Parthenogenetic females of H. dromedarii give rise to many deformed larvae, those that survive are Ell females not outwardly distinguishable from normal specimens. Both sexes are represented when Fl females are mated with males.

NOTE. Yugoslavia. In various lists of Yugos1avia1ticks pre_ sented by Oswald (see Bibliograph) H. dromedarii or synonyms of this species are not included. The possibility

that material mentioned in the following two papers refer
to a different species in this genus must be considered.
Specimens have been requested from Yugoslavian workers.

MIKACIC (1952 and 1949). Yugoslavia. H. dromedarii pesent in Adriatic Islands on domestic animals in spring and early summer (1949). Relation to piroplasmosis (1952).

CVJETANOVIC (1953). Yugoslavia. Tick reservoirs in an epidemic of Q fever at Ogulin believed to be R. san. ' eus and H. dromedarii. Epidemic commenced at height 0% spring when sheep, which were the source of human infection, were most heavily infested by these two species along with fewer numbers of R. bursa and H. ctata. ,Patients had no history of ticE5it . '


OLENEV (1931B). USSR. As H. savi i armenorium: Note (synonymy uncertain). As ET anatoéicuz Iotes.


rumxov, xcuncrurrov, &MIRZABE.KOV (1939). USSR. As H. eevigpyi

(may refer to R. marginatum): transmission of-thel erosls in zebu cattle.

SERDYUKOVA (1941). USSR. As H. anatolicu excavatum: spiro_ chetes of Central Asiatic_reIapsing fever can be transmitted to guinea pigs by inoculation of emulsified in_ fected ticks up to 24 hours after having been taken from infected animals. Similar results obtained with H.

mar inatu, Q. pictus, and Q. marginatus. See aI§o_§.

U111, page

DEMIDOVA (191.2). ussn, Uzbekistan. As H. savi 1 (see also g.

detritum, page 872): remarks appear to app y o _. excavatum rather than to H. mar inatum, but this is not certain. All stages

of ticks found in cracks 0 buildings from level of ground to roofs of sheds where cattle sleep; also in holes bored by insects in walls, cracks in poles, and under piles of corn beside stalls. Outside these buildings, nuerous males and females were found up to above the height of a man under the loose bark of acacia trees but none were observed in a nearby cracked wooden feeding trough. In other localities, some were collected under plaster but nuerous unengorged adults of both sexes sheltered in cracks in walls and under manure as well as in pole holes excavated

by wood boring beetle larvae and under rags on poles supporting the shed. In a borrow pit in which cattle slept, ticks were found in cracked walls of the pit, under turf, etc.

PERVCMAISKY (l950B). USSR. As anatolicum excavatum: mating with mar inatum, gynandrorcorphs. See H. marginatum, is H

page , o _. dromedarii above, and Pervomais 954).

PERVQ~iAISKX (1954). USSR. Breeding experiments demonstrate
that progeny of H. a. anatolicum may in part resemble H.
a. excavatum and_th'at progeny of H. a. excavatum may 1?.
‘part resemble H. a. anatolicum. Critical characters of
both subspecies descri 531'. Results obtained from parthe.
nogenetic oviposition are similar to those described
above for dromedarii.


Mosaic gynandromorphs (H. a. anatolicum), after feeding and
mating with males of the same species, give rise to normal
males and females. (There follow some remarks in support
of genetic theories in vogue in the USSR at the time this
was written. Similar remarks occur in this author's 1950B
paper). Variations, deformities, survival in spite of
physical damage, etc., are discussed in some detail.

cmuucov (1951.). USSR. As H. anatolicum: isolation of Q fever (Q. burnetii) from specimens i'n Central Asia.


Figures 329 and 330, d§ dorsal and ventral views.
Figures 331 and 332, Q, dorsal and ventral views.

A, Q genital area. B to D, 9 genital area, outline and profile, unengorged and unmated. E to G, spiracular plates of (E) "H. sp. no.2," (F) H. excavatum, and (G) "H. sp. no.1."

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This species occurs in HXPI‘ and probably extends eastward and westward from here.


Adults feed on camels; imature stages on lizards, Acantho.

dact lus and A ama. In the laboratory, rabbits serve as hbst for EII stages aid man has been utilized to feed adults.


This is a fairly common tick locally on Egyptian desert lizards. Life cycle and other biolo ical data will be pa. sented subsequently (Hoogstraal, ms.§


Although probably already described, we are not yet certain which name applies to this species. The male runs to H. excava. tu in the Delpy (l949A) and in the present (page 397)_keys. TEE female superficially resembles that of H. detritum but is morphologically distinct from all others. In size, 53th sexes are considerably larger than H. excavatu. Adults, reared from nymphs removed from Egyptian lizards, have produced uniform Fl adults, thus indicating the validity of this species. All spec. imens are remarkably similar, a phenomenon seldom seen in this genus. However, further search of field collections and addi. tional rearing will pobably reveal more variable individuals. Means to separate this species from NH. species no. 2 near excavatu" may be found on page

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