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Male. The scutum measues from 3.94 mm. to 4.37 mm. in length

and from 1.95 m. to 2.90 m. in width; specimens with a scutum measuring less than 4.10 mm. long and 2.66 mm. wide are uncommon. The scutum of H. excavatum measues from 3.52 mm. to 4.18 mm. ong and from 2:00 mm. to 2.19 mm. wide, but seldom exceeds 3.75 mm. in length and 2.09 m. in width. The appearance is that of a strong hyalomma in comparison wit the typical frail guise of H. excavatum. The shiny dark brown scutum is in contrast to the typIc§IIy yellowish brown scutu of H. excavatum. Scutal puncta.

tions are few; minute but distinct pfinctations are widely scattered over the entire surface and become dense in the characteristically

triangular caudal depression; large punctations nuber no more than those on the specimen illustrated (Figue 331) and may be

even rarer. Lateral grooves are strictly confined to the posterior

third of the scutu where they are deep and distinct. The caudal

depression is an approximately equilateral triangle (margins cuved

in_§. excavatum) bounded by a ridge that is not so elevated as in H. excavatu; the apex of the depression is level with the apex of the Iateral grooves; the posteromedian groove is poorly devel. oped and does not extend beyond the depression, the paramedian grooves are faint, rounded depressions extending as faint grooves

to the middle of the third pair of festoons. The posterior margin

of the scutum is bluntly rounded while that of H. excavatum is more narrowly rounded. The adanal shields are'§trong, Bro , and quadrate posteriorly (Figure 332), and the subanal shields, that lie directly posterior of them,are larger than is usual in H. excavatu. The spiracular plate (Figue 332G) is distinguished from that of H. excavatum (Figue 332F) especially by the narrow. ly tapered, very slightly curved tail (the tail of H. excavatum is wider and curves more abruptly apically).


Female. Scutal measuements in most specimens are appox. imately 2.50 mm. in length and 2.38 mm. in width; the minimum is 1.95 mm. by 2.00 m.; the maximum 2.71 mm. by 2.52 m.; the out. line is subcircular and the surface is smooth with very few, large, widely scattered punctations, thus being similar to that of H. detritu (the typical outline in H. detritum tapers more abrfiptly from the level of the eyes and'is narrower posteriorly). The genital ePT°n (Figure 334A to D) is similar to that of R.


truncatum and might easily be confused with it (of. Figure 189A WD_a.E'page 503); its deeply depressed profile and wide outline is in strong contrast to the gradual slope and narrower outline in H. detritum and to the strongly convex profile and subcircular or more narrowly triangular outline in excavatum.


Figures 333 and 334, db dorsal and ventral views.
Figures 335 and 336, Q, dorsal and ventral views.

A, Q, genital area. B to D, Q, genital area outline and profile. B, unengcrged. C, partly engorged. D, fully engorged.

Reared Egyptian Specimens

_ 884 _

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mam, including Sinai, and LIBYA (ma. collection). PALES. TINE (various lots in BMNH identified as ‘H. excavatu large race", HR det.). MOROCCO (Lot oa_2_3_lo.l3 in m1m,'mr.r-1. . . CANARY ISLANDS (Nuttall lot 3226 in mm, rm det.). mm (HH, ms.).


Known hosts of adults are camels and cattle. In Egypt, in; mature stages (reared to adults) have been taken from spiny mice, Ac Eye russatus, at 5000 feet altitude in Sinai; lesser gerbils, _. _g. er5iIIus near Cairo- and fat sandrats Psammo s_<_>. obesusé-IE-saline desert areas on the Mediterranean II¥toral Efieice the Nile Delta.


Biological and life history data will be presented separately (HH, ms.). It is notable that in Egypt we find this species only in certain desert situations from sea level to 5000 feet elevation but never in cultivated areas.


“Species number 2' is a large race or species closely related to H. excavatm but differing from it in color and size. The size is even greater than that of “species nuber 1" but the color is similar.

Recently Mr. Glen M. Kbhls of the Rocky Mountain Laboratory kindly sent us the Schulze collection of ‘Q. anatolicumP for study. The bulk of this material conforms exactly to ‘H alomma species no. 2 near excavatumF. Although a surprising mi£ture of


other species, H. marginatum, H. rufi s, H. detritum, H. excavatum, and ticks of other genera are inc in ihe same viaI§, {he pre_ sent species may be considered as "H. anatolicum (sensu Schulze)“. It is, however, far from certain thht ihis is {he same species that contemporary Soviet workers are labelling H. anatolicum. Feldman_Muhsam (1954) states that the type specimen of H. anato_ licum "seems to be lost". The true identity of this nahe, hhhra. fore, should be difficult to establish. She also considers H. anatolicum specimens in the Schulze collection as "within the range of variation of H. excayatumF, a conclusion not corroborated by present rearing studies. Kiahz (1940) also indicated that the type specimen of_H. anatolicum was lost, and suggested that his mentor, Schulze, appiied {his name because of the frequency of this species in collections from Anatolia. It is obvious that

the complicated problem of identity and of species and subspecies related to the present form will require a considerable amount of study before valid and firm conclusions can be drawn. Typical specimens of "H. anatolicum (sensu Schulze)‘ in the Schulze col. lection are frhm.Macedonia, Anahoiia, Shyios and Thassos Islands (Greece), Egypt, and Rio de Oro. A male from Kabete, Kenya, is also included; this range is difficult to explain, except on the basis of accidental introduction, and bears further investigation. Hosts of typical specimens are cattle, horses, camels, sheep, and an antelope (Rio de Oro).

The presence of this species in the northwestern area of Africa appears well established by reason of representatives from Morocco and Canary Islands in British Museum (Natural History) collections, fronRio de Oro in the Schulze collection (Rocky Mountain Laboratory), and from Libya in the 1m collection.



Male. The scutum measures from 4.28 mm. to 5.12 mm. in length and from 2.66 mm. to 3.52 mm. in width, thus being con. siderably larger than H. excavatum (for measurements, see page 451). It is colored a§ in "species number 1" and slightly more punctate than either of the other two species; the caudal de_ pression is more rugose and more densely furnished with mixed, contiguous punctations than in.§. excavatum but its characteris. tic outline is the same in both species Ehd pronounced elevated ridges border it. Lateral grooves are like those of H. excayatum, but may appear to be continued slightly more anterioriy due is the presence of several large punctations in line with them. The

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