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other species, H. marginatum, H. rufipes, H. detritum, H. excavatum, and ticks of other genera are included in the same vials, the present species may be considered as "H. anatolicum (sensu Schulze)". It is, however, far from certain that this is the same species that contemporary Soviet workers are labelling H. anatolicum. Feldman_Muhsam (1954) states that the type specimen of H. anatolicum "seems to be lost". The true identity of this name, there fore, should be difficult to establish. She also considers H. anatolicum specimens in the Schulze collection as "within the range of variation of H. excavatum , a conclusion not corroborated by present rearing studies. Kratz (1940) also indicated that the type specimen of H. anatolicum was lost, and suggested that his mentor, Schulze, applied this name because of the frequency of this species in collections from Anatolia. It is obvious that the complicated problem of identity and of species and subspecies related to the present form will require a considerable amount of study before valid and firm conclusions can be drawn. Typical specimens of "H. anatolicum (sensu Schulze)" in the Schulze col lection are from Macedonia, Anatolia, Skyros and Thassos Islands (Greece), Egypt, and Rio de Oro. A male from Kabete, Kenya, is also included; this range is difficult to explain, except on the basis of accidental introduction, and bears further investigation. Hosts of typical specimens are cattle, horses, camels, sheep, and an antelope (Rio de Oro).

The presence of this species in the northwestern area of Africa appears well established by reason of representatives from Morocco and Canary Islands in British Museum (Natural History) collections, from Rio de Oro in the Schulze collection (Rocky Mountain Laboratory), and from Libya in the HH collection.


Male. The scutum measures from 4.28 mm. to 5.12 mm. in length and from 2.66 mm. to 3.52 mm. in width, thus being con siderably larger than H. excavatum (for measurements, see page 451). It is colored as in "species number 1" and slightly more punctate than either of the other two species; the caudal de pression is more rugose and more densely furnished with mixed, contiguous punctations than in H. excavatum but its characteris tic outline is the same in both species and pronounced elevated ridges border it. Lateral grooves are like those of H. excavatum, but may appear to be continued slightly more anteriorly due to the presence of several large punctations in line with them. The

spiracular plate is very slightly larger than that of H. excavatum but otherwise similar to it.

Female. The scutum measures from 2.09 mm. to 2.61 mm. in length and from 2.04 mm. to 2.42 mm. in width, thereby exceeding the size of that of the largest specimen of H. excavatum. Spec imens of the present species measuring less than 2.23 mm. by 2.14 mm. are rare; 2.33 mm. by 2.23 mm. is a common ratio. The genital apron is like that of H. excavatum but the scutum is colored as in "species number In and is slightly more punctate than that of the other two species.


OLENEV (1931B). USSR. As H. marginatum, H. marginatum olenevi,

and H. marginatum subsp. : descriptions and notes.


distribution records from 1932.

As H. marginatum balcanicum:



H. marginatum, collecting records. KURCHATOV (1939B). USSR, Crimea. H. marginatum. Details of life cycle, seasonal incidence, and host preferences conform to those of other authors and of this author in other papers. Addi. tional interesting facts are also provided. In laboratory rear. ing, the length of the life cycle is in direct proportion to temperature range (7°c. to 370C.) but the length of life (? of unfed ticks - ? stage) is in inverse proportion to temperature. Temperatures of from 7°c. to 10°C. and 42°c. are unfavorable; the range from 22°C. to 27°c. is most favorable with relative humidity from 75 to 100%. Engorged nymphs tolerate any relative humidity from zero to 100% and temperature from 7°c. to 42°C.; in this respect they exceed other stages. Larvae and nymphs are most active in Crimean foothills during the summer-autum period in the morning and evening (24°C. to 30°C., RH 50% to 75%). In temperatures over 30°C., most ticks hide in shady places and some burrow into the soil. Át night temperatures below 210C. or 22°C. and also with high relative humidity and strong winds almost no tick activity is noticed. The northern limits where this tick is common is from 46°C. to 49°c. northern latitude (annual iso_ therm 9°C.). Cattle are rarely infested in summer in open semideserts and deserts. Most heavily infested areas are lowlands and foothills of steppes, forested steppes, and low mountain forest zones. High mountain belts are rarely infested. The fact that immature stages attack migrating birds may account for finding this tick rarely in northern latitudes.


MARKOV, ABUSAL IMOV, & DZASOKHOV (1939). USSR. As H. marginatum;

epizootic piroplasmosis of swine; transmission not achieved. KURCHATOV (1940G). USSR. H. marginatum; an extensive review of

biological and ecological information; not yet translated. SERDYUKOVA (1941). USSR. As H. marginatum. See H. excavatum

page 878. Also: Transovárial transmission of spirochetes does not occur, whether when attempted by injection of emulsified eggs or when Fı larvae or nymphs from infected

females are allowed to feed on guineapigs. DEMIDOV, STARUKHIN, & DMITRIEV (1944). USSR.

USSR. H. marginatum infests stabled horses in North Caucasus during the winter

and may infect them with Nuttallia equi at that time. ABRAMOV (1949). USSR.

USSR. H. marginatum in relation to equine piroplasmosis (P. caballit. ABRAMOV, TSAPRUN, & LEBEDEV (1950). USSR. Importance of H.

marginatum as transmitter of equine piroplasmosis. PERVQAISKY (1950B). USSR. As H. p. plumbeum: females mated

with males of H. anatolicum excavatum feed normally, become enlarged, and lay normal quantity of eggs, which are in fertile. When male H. p. plumbeum fertilize female H. anatolicum excavatum, from 20% to 100% of the eggs are fertile; the majority of Fl females have maternal traits, the majority of the Fı males have combined maternal and paternal traits. When "extremely normal" Fı males and females were mated, the progeny consisted of 61 gynandromorphs in a batch of 435 individuals ( see also R. sangui.

neus, page 910, and Pervomaisky (1954). 7 PERVOMAISKY (1954). USSR. As H. p. plumbeum: males vary from

3.2 mm. to 6.3 mm. in length and from T.8 mm. to 3.6 mm.
in width. Three types of scutal punctations are observed
on individual specimens, (1) most common, numerous, even
ly distributed minute among large, (2) common, numerous
minute, (3) on small males, minute and large mixed. The
middle festoon is narrow, the tail of the spiracular plate
is wide, and the inner margin of the ad anal shield is
slightly extended. The female size is quite variable
and scutal punctation varies as among males, but diagnos.
tic characters are "relatively constant."

[merged small][graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

Figures 337 and 338, , dorsal and ventral views.

A, 2, genital area. B to D, , genital apron, outline and

profile. B and C, unengorged. D, engorred.

HY ALOMMA SCHULZEI Eastern Desert, Egypt See pages 524 to 526



SURBOVA (1955). Bulgaria. As H. p. plumbeum: distribution,

biology, ecology, epidemiology. (Not translated). SERDYUKOVA (1955). USSR. As H. plumbeum: larva illustrated

and compared with those of other genera. TARASEVICH (1955). USSR.

As H. p. plumbeum: vector of Q fever (R. burnetii).


DAUBNEY (1944). Kenya. Morphology and biology under study.


WALKER, J. B. (Correspondence). Kenya. Life cycle. At Muguga, when all stages were fed on the ears of rabbit, the life cycle was the two host type. Miss Walker believes that the type of host to which the larva attaches influences the number of hosts involved in the life cycle. The following data were obtained when nonfeeding stages were maintained at 25°C. to 270c.

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Oviposition to hatching
Larvae feed and molt; nymphs
feed on same animal

15 to 23
Nymphal premolting period

17 Adult prefeeding period

7 to 17 or more Disease relations: Experimentally, East Coast fever (Theileria parva) develops and is transmitted by H. truncatum (experiments by Dr. S. F. Barnett and Mr. K. P. Bailey). Inasmuch as im mature stages do not normally feed on bovines, transmission in nature is rare.

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