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Figures 342 to 346, o'; 347 to 351, 2; 352 to 358, nymph.
and ventral views.
Figures 359 and 360, 0', dorsal and ventral views Figures 361 and 362, 6, dorsal and ventral views
from Dr. G. Theiler
Figures 363 to 367, 0. Figure 363, tarsi I to IV.
Figures 368 to 372, p. Figure 368, tarsi I to IV.
MARGAROPUS WINTHEMI Karsch, 1879(B).
(Figures 359 to 372)
THE WINTER HORSE TICK or
THE SOUTH AFRICAN BEADY_LEGGED TICK
NOTE: This non_Sudanese species is treated herein in order to provide comparative data for M. reidi sp. nov. and because it is necessary to modify our concepts of the genus Margaropus. Data concerning this tick have not been reviewed in detail since Dönitz (1910B).
The winter horse tick occurs only in localized areas of the Union of South Africa and Basutoland. This species has been in troduced into Southern Rhodesia and Madagascar but populations do not appear to have become established. Frequent literature references to this as a South American tick are incorrect.
[ SOUTHERN AFRICA: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: Specimen stated to have originated from "alparaiso", Winthem legit; no further data; assumed (HH) to be South Africa: Karsch (1879B). Type specimen examined and stated, to be misformed M. microplus: Neumann (1901); refuted by Dönitz (1907B). Without species name: Orpen (1904). As Rhipicephalus species B: Lounsbury (1905). As M. lounsburyi: Neumann (1907B,1911). As Rhipicephalus phthirioides sp. nov.: Cooper and Robinson (1907). As M. Winthemi: Donitz" (1907B,1910B). As M. louns buryi: Howard (1908). As M. winthemi: Bedford (1920,1926,1927,1932B, 1934). Jack (1921, 1928, 1937). Cowdry (19250,1926A, 1927). du Toit (1942B,1947A). Theiler and Salisbury (1956). BASUTOLAND: Howard (1908). Bedford (1920,1926,1927,1932B). Theiler and Salisbury (1956).7
[ SOUTHERN RHODESIA: Introduced from South Africa but not lonown to be established in Southern Rhodesia: Jack (1921,1928,
1937,1942). MADAGASCAR: Introduced but not known to be established. Hoogstraal (1953E).7
All authors who mention hosts and Theiler (correspondence) state that horses are most commonly attacked and, to a lesser ex tent, cattle and sheep. Wild hosts have not been reported.
This tick has not been reared in the laboratory but Lounsbury and Howard have observed that it is a single host tick that required from 186 to 201 days "from adults to hatching of larvae at Cape town. This winter tick probably undergoes only a single generation annually.
Veld horses become very badly covered during winter but few of these ticks are seen in summer (Howard 1908). Eighty percent of available records for M. Winthemi are for winter months, May to August. This species does not occur in warm or in moist areas but is found, frequently at high altitudes, in many localities having more than ninety days of frost and less than thirty inches of annual rainfall (Theiler and Salisbury 1956).
M. winthemi and M. reidi sp. nov. are the only species des cribed in this genus. They occur in widely separated, restricted areas of Africa, within the Ethiopian Faunal Region, and differ considerably in ecological requirements. It is of interest that M. winthemi has been collected only from horses and other domestic animals and M. reidi sp. nov. only from giraffes.