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Figures 359 and 360, 0"‘, dorsal and ventral views Figures 361 and 362, 9, dorsal and ventral views

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Figures 363 to 367,-62 Figue 363, tarsi I to IV. Figues 364 to 365, palpi, dorsal and ventral views. Figure 366, hypostome, ventral view.

Figure 367, spiracular plate.

Figures 368 to 372, 9. Figure 368, tarsi I to IV. Figues 368 and 370, palpi, dorsal and ventral views. Figure 371, hypostome, ventral view.

Figure 372, spiracular plate.


South African Specimens from Dr. G. Theiler

mncnnorus wmrnnu Kersch, 1879(B).

(Figures 359 to 372)


NUTE: This non...Sudanese species is treated herein in order to provide comparative data for M. reidi sp. nov. and because it is necessary to modify our conce'pts'Ff"the genus Mar§aro%s. Dgta concerning this tick have not been reviewed in e a1 since

Donitz (191013) .


The winter horse tick occurs only in localized areas of the Union of South Africa and Basutoland. This species has been in. troduced into Southern Rhodesia and Madagascar but populations do not appear to have become established. Frequent literature references to this as a South American tick are incorrect.

['SOUTHERN AFRICA: UNION or SOUTH AFRICA§ Specimen stated to have originata Eon "Valparaiso", Winthem le it ; no further data; assumed (HH) to be South Africa: Karsch 9B). Type specimen examined and statednto be misformed M. micro lus: Neumann (1901) ; refuted by Donitz (190713). witno species name: Orpen (1904). As Rhi ice halus species B: Lounsbury

(1905). As 1~_~1. lounsb = eumann 907B 1911). AsRhi i. hthirioides sp. nov.: Coo r and Robinson

ce halus

Is )1. win mi: onitz (l907B,l9l0B . As M. lounsb i: Hou3.r<i_(T9U’<T)‘. As M. winthemi: Bedford (1‘92~ , 1932B, 1931.). Jack (1921,'I928'I93"7')', . Cowdry (1925c,1926n,192'7). du Toit (191.2B,191.7A). Theiler and Salisbury (1956). BASUTOLAND: Howard (1908). Bedford (l920,l926,l927,l932B). Theiler and Salisbury (1956)


[ SOUTHERN RHODESIA: Introduced from South Africa but not known to be established in Southern Rhodesia: Jack (1921 ,l928,

1937,1942). MADAGASCAR: Introduced an-. not known to be established.
Hoogstraal (19533) J
All authors who mention hosts and Theiler (correspondence)

state that horses are most commonly attacked and, to a lesser ex. tent, cattle and sheep. Wild hosts have not been reported.

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This tick has not been reared in the laboratory but Lounsbury and Howard have observed that it is a single host tick that required from 186 to 201 days ‘from adults to hatching of larvae" at Cape. town. This winter tick probably undergoes only a single generation annually.


Veld horses become very badly covered during winter but few of these ticks are seen in summer (Howard 1908). Eighty percent of available records for M. winthemi are for winter months, May to August. This species does not occ1n' in wa.rm or in moist areas but is found, frequently at high altitudes, in many localities having more than ninety days of frost and less than thirty inches of armual rainfall (Theiler and Salisbury 1956).


M. winthemi and M. reidi sp. nov. are the only species described in this genus: They occur in widely separated, restricted areas of Africa, within the Ethiopian Faunal Region, and differ considerably in ecological requirements. It is of interest that M. winthemi has been collected only fiom horses and other domestic aniE1_s_E M. reidi sp. nov. only from giraffes.


Long known as the Argentine horse tick because the source of the original specimen was stated to be Valparaiso, this tick has neve been reported from South America. Why Valparaiso has been referred to Argentina and not to Chile is uncertain. As early as 1907, Donitz questioned the South American origin of this species, ramar that were overlooked by most subsequent writers. According to Donitz (l9lOB), Hinthem was a Hamburg dealer (pre. sumably in zoological specimens - HH).

Symbiotes were not discovered in M. winthemi by Cowdry (l925C, l926A,l927).


Schulze (l938A) mentioned this species in his study of adult development within nymphs and in his 1943B study. Jakob (1924) included M. winthemi in his study of tick genera as have all authors who have discussed this subject. Because of its re. markable appearance, this species has been widely illustrated and discussed, usually largely incorrectly.

The first reference to thisetick in South African literature (Theiler, correspondence) is that of Orpen (1904): "It is com. monly believed here that there are no ticks in the Barkly East district, or only such as are brought in by transport cattle during the Smmer and that ticks will not survive the severity of our winter hosts. I may state that last Winter I found many ticks upon our veld fed horses and that this winter they are worse, in a troop of about seventy mares and foals, many animals are fairly covered with ticks. we have had severe frosts since the beginning of April and the mountains are white with snow. This would lead one to conclude that given the protection and the warmth of an animal's body these ticks will live through any New England (Barkly East district) winter. (It is noticeable that the variety found on our horses remain upon them when melt.


The original description of the genus, translated from Ger.

man, is as follows: Mar aro gen. nov. Body slender, longer than wide, sides sligEtIy sinuously rounded, the posterior mar. gin on each side bearing three small, pointed hairtufts. The second and third pairs of legs are normal (the first pair is lacking), the fourth has very large, flat, sharply separated, almost circular segments. Type species: M. winthemi sp. nov.

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