Introduction to Geomicrobiology

Front Cover
John Wiley & Sons, Mar 12, 2009 - Science - 440 pages
Introduction to Geomicrobiology is a timely and comprehensive overview of how microbial life has affected Earth’s environment through time. It shows how the ubiquity of microorganisms, their high chemical reactivity, and their metabolic diversity make them a significant factor controlling the chemical composition of our planet.


The following topics are covered:


  • how microorganisms are classified, the physical constraints governing their growth, molecular approaches to studying microbial diversity, and life in extreme environments
  • bioenergetics, microbial metabolic capabilities, and major biogeochemical pathways
  • chemical reactivity of the cell surface, metal sorption, and the microbial role in contaminant mobility and bioremediation/biorecovery
  • microbiological mineral formation and fossilization
  • the function of microorganisms in mineral dissolution and oxidation, and the industrial and environmental ramifications of these processes
  • elemental cycling in biofilms, formation of microbialites, and sediment diagenesis
  • the events that led to the emergence of life, evolution of metabolic processes, and the diversification of the biosphere.

Artwork from the book is available to instructors at www.blackwellpublishing.com/konhauser.

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Contents

412 Iron hydroxides
143
413 Magnetite
149
414 Manganese oxides
150
415 Clays
153
416 Amorphous silica
156
417 Carbonates
160
418 Phosphates
166
419 Sulfates
169

151 Hydrothermal systems
23
152 Polar environments viable population is available to seed the global
26
153 Acid environments
28
154 Hypersaline and alkaline environments
29
155 Deepsubsurface environments
30
156 Life on other planets
32
157 Panspermia
34
16 Summary
35
2 Microbial metabolism
36
212 Oxidationreduction
37
213 ATP generation
42
214 Chemiosmosis
43
22 Photosynthesis
47
222 The light reactions anoxygenic photosynthesis
49
223 Classification of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria
51
224 The light reactions oxygenic photosynthesis
54
225 The dark reactions
56
226 Nitrogen fixation
57
23 Catabolic processes
58
231 Glycolysis and fermentation
59
232 Respiration
61
24 Chemoheterotrophic pathways
65
242 Dissimilatory nitrate reduction
66
243 Dissimilatory manganese reduction
67
244 Dissimilatory iron reduction
69
245 Trace metal and metalloid reductions
72
246 Dissimilatory sulfate reduction
74
247 Methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis
77
25 Chemolithoautotrophic pathways
79
252 Homoacetogens and methanogens
81
253 Methylotrophs
82
254 Sulfur oxidizers
84
255 Iron oxidizers
86
256 Manganese oxidizers
89
257 Nitrogen oxidizers
91
3 Cell surface reactivity and metal sorption
93
312 Bacterial surface layers
97
313 Archaeal cell walls
100
32 Microbial surface charge
101
322 Electrophoretic mobility
104
323 Chemical equilibrium models
105
33 Passive metal adsorption
108
332 Metal adsorption to eukaryotes
111
333 Metal cation partitioning
112
334 Competition with anions
114
341 Surface stability requirements
115
342 Metal binding to microbial exudates
116
35 Bacterial metal sorption models
119
352 Freundlich isotherms
120
353 Langmuir isotherms
121
354 Surface complexation
122
355 Does a generalized sorption model exist?
124
36 The microbial role in contaminant mobility
126
361 Microbial sorption to solid surfaces
127
362 Microbial transport through porous media
131
37 Industrial applications based on microbial surface reactivity
133
372 Biorecovery
136
38 Summary
138
4 Biomineralization
139
4110 Sulfide minerals
171
42 Biologically controlled mineralization
174
422 Greigite
178
423 Amorphous silica
179
424 Calcite
183
43 Fossilization
185
431 Silicification
186
432 Other authigenic minerals
189
44 Summary
191
5 Microbial weathering
192
512 Microbial colonization and organic reactions
195
513 Silicate weathering
200
514 Carbonate weathering
205
515 Soil formation
206
516 W eathering and global climate
209
52 Sulfide oxidation
211
522 Biological role in pyrite oxidation
215
523 Bioleaching
223
524 Biooxidation of refractory gold
229
53 Microbial corrosion
230
531 Chemolithoautotrophs
231
532 Chemoheterotrophs
232
533 Fungi
234
6 Microbial zonation
235
611 Mat development
236
612 Photosynthetic mats
240
613 Chemolithoautotrophic mats
246
614 Biosedimentary structures
249
62 Marine sediments
259
621 Organic sedimentation
260
622 An overview of sediment diagenesis
262
623 Oxic sediments
265
624 Suboxic sediments
266
625 Anoxic sediments
272
626 Preservation of organic carbon Preservation of organic carbon
280
627 Diagenetic mineralization
283
628 Sediment hydrogen concentrations
287
629 Problems with the biogeochemical zone scheme
288
63 Summary
292
7 Early microbial life
293
711 The Hadean environment
294
712 Origins of life
296
713 Mineral templates
301
72 The first cellular life forms
305
722 Deepestbranching Bacteria and Archaea
309
723 The fermenters and initial respirers
311
73 Evolution of photosynthesis
312
732 Photosynthetic expansion
319
733 The cyanobacteria
323
74 Metabolic diversification
327
742 Continental platforms as habitats
331
743 Aerobic respiratory pathways
334
75 Earths oxygenation
340
752 Eukaryote evolution
345
76 Summary
349
References
350
Index
406
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About the author (2009)

Kurt Konhauser is a Canada Research Chair in Geomicrobiology in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Alberta. He is also Editor-in-Chief for Geobiology. His current research interests include the role of bacteria in modern mineral precipitation, and how those same processes may have contributed to the preservation of early life forms and the formation of Precambrian banded iron formations.

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