Descartes and the Hyperbolic Quest: Lens Making Machines and Their Significance in the Seventeenth Century

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American Philosophical Society, 2005 - Science - 152 pages
 

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jest dobry opis teorii D.--> na pewno do eseju

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Page 40 - Those long chains of reasoning, simple and easy as they are, of which geometricians make use in order to arrive at the most difficult demonstrations, had caused me to imagine that all those things which fall under the cognizance of man might very likely be mutually related in the same fashion...
Page 133 - To practical mechanics all the manual arts belong, from which mechanics took its name. But as artificers do not work with perfect accuracy, it comes to pass that mechanics is so distinguished from geometry, that what is perfectly accurate is called geometrical; what is less so is called mechanical.
Page 133 - However, the errors are not in the art, but in the artificers. He that works with less accuracy is an imperfect mechanic; and if any could work with perfect accuracy, he would be the most perfect mechanic of all, for the description of right lines and circles, upon which geometry is founded, belongs to mechanics.
Page 12 - ... must have a hollow iron dish, that is a portion of a great Sphaere, as you will have your Spectacles more or less Convex; and the dish must be perfectly polished. But if we seek for Concave Spectacles; let there be an Iron-ball, like to those we shoot with Gun-powder from the great Brass Canon : the superficies whereof is two, or three foot about : Upon the Dish, or Ball there is strewed white-sand, that comes from Vincentia, commonly called Saldame, and with water it is forcibly rubbed between...
Page 134 - ... intellectu, qui jam omnes errandi causas perspexit ; non amplius vereri debeo ne illa, quae mihi quotidie a sensibus exhibentur, sint falsa, sed hyperbolicae superiorum dierum dubitationes, ut risu dignae, sunt explodendae.
Page 12 - ... lens as the object and not inverted. From the first production of lenses every kind of experiment was tried to see what could be done with them. In this period of about four centuries from the introduction of lenses to the invention of the compound microscope there was a very close alliance between to the same handle with Colophonia, and work as you did before, that on both sides it may receive a Concave or Convex superficies; then rubbing it over again with the powder of Tripolis. that it may...
Page 13 - ... thinge, a great distance, and specyally by the ayde of other glasses. [Here we have the principle of the Refracting Telescope.] . . . the smallest sorte of them, commonly called spectacle glasses . . . ys grounde vppon a toole of Iron, made of purpose, somewhat hollowe, or concave inwardes. . . . The Glasse, after that yt ys full rounde, ys made fast with syman vppon a smalle block, and so grounde by hande, vntill that yt ys bothe smoothe and also thynne, by the edges, or sydes, but thickest...
Page 12 - CoFophonia melted; and if you will make Convex Spectacles, you must have a hollow iron dish, that is a portion of a great Sphaere, as you will have your Spectacles more or less Convex; and the dish must be perfectly polished. But if we seek for Concave Spectacles; let there be an Iron-ball, like to those we shoot with Gun-powder from the great Brass Canon : the superficies whereof is two, or three foot about : Upon the...
Page 21 - According to the law of reflection the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection and the incident ray, the reflected ray as well as the normal ray always lie in the same plane.
Page 13 - And may be made of any kynde of glasse, but the clearer the better. And so the Glasse, after that yt ys full rounde, ys made fast with syman vppon a smalle block, and so grounde by hande, vntill that yt ys bothe smoothe and allso thynne, by the edges, or sydes, but thickest in the middle.

About the author (2005)

He is a historian of science & the author of Masters of All They Surveyed. After graduating summa cum laude from Princeton University, he was a Marshall Scholar at Trinity college, Cambridge. In 1999, Chicago's Newberry Library awarded him the Nebenzahl Prize in the History of Cartography. A 1999-2000 Fellow at the Center for Scholars & Writers at the New York Public Library, he has taught at Yale & Columbia Universities. He lives in Princeton, where he is an assistant professor in the History Department.

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