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OF POETICAL FEET. A certam number of syllables connected form a foot. They are called feel. because it is by their aid that the voice, as it were, steps along through the verse in a measured pace.

All feet used in poetry consist either of two, or of three syllables, and are reducible to eight kinds-four of two syllables, and four of three-as follows : DISSYLLABLE,

A Trochee,

A Dactyl,
An Iambis, -

An Amphibrach, u-u
A Spondee,

An Anapæst, uu
A Pyrrhic

A Tribrach, A Trochee has the first syllable accented, and the last unaccented; as, “ Hätefůl, péttish.”.

An lambus has the first syllable unaccented, and the latter accented ; as, “Bětráy, cồnsist.

A Spondee has both the words or syllables accented; as, "The pale moon.'

A Pyrrhic has both the words or syllables unaccented; as, “Ön the tai tree."

A Dactyl has the first syllable accented, and the two latter unaccented; as, “ Laborěr, possible.”

An Amphibrach has the first and last syllables unaccented, and the middle one accented; as, “ Dělightful, doméstic."

An Anapæst has the two first syllables unaccented, and the last accented ; as, “ Contrăvēne, acquiésce."

A Tribrach has all its syllables unaccented; as, Núměrăblē, conquerable.”

Some of these may be denominated principal feet, as pieces of poetry may be wholly or chiefly formed of any of them. Such are the lambus, Trochee Dactyl, and Anapäest. The others may be termed secondary feet, because their chief use is to diversify the numbers, and to improve the verse.

PUNCTUATION PUNCTUATION 18 the art of dividing a written composition into sen tences, by points or stops, for the purpose of marking the diferent pauses which the sense and an accurate pronunciation require.

The Comma represents the shortest pause; the Semicolon, a pause double that of the comma; the Colon, double that of the semicolon; and the Period, double that of the colon.

OF THE COMMA. The Comma usually separates those parts of a sentence which, though very closely connected in sense and construction, require a pause between them.

Rule 1.-With respect to a simple sentence, the several words of which it is composed, have so near a relation to each other, that, in general, no points are requisite, except a full stop at the end of it; as, “ The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.” “Every part of nature swarms with living creatures."

A simple sentence, however, when it is a long one, and the nominative case is accompanied with inseparable adjuncts, may admit of a pause immediately before the verb; as, “ The good taste of the present age, has not allowed us to neglect the cultivation of the English language.” To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real defect in character.”

What constitutes a poetical foot, and why is it so called? Of how many syllables do poetical feet consist? How many kinds of feet are there, and what are they? What is a Trochee ? an lambus ? a Spondee? á Pyrrhic ? a Dactyl ? an Amphibrach?" an Anapæst?' a Tribrach? Will you give an example of each? Which are called pruicipal feet? Which recondary! Why.

What is punctuation? What does the comma represent ? the semicolon ? the colon? the period?

How is the comma used ? “ The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." Does this sentence require a pause in it? Will you give the rule for sentences of this kind ? taste of the present age has not allowed us to negloct the cultivation of the Engli lampage." Does this

" The good

RULE 2.-When the connection of the different parts of a simple sentence, is interrupted by an imperfect phrase, a comma is usually introduced before the beginning and at the end of the phrase; as, “I remember, with gratitude, his goodness to me.". “ His work is, in many respects, very imperfect."..“ It is, therefore, not much approved.” But when the interruptions are slight and unimportant, the comma is better omitted; as, “Flattery is certainly pernicious." “ There is surely a pleasure in beneficence.”

RULE 3.-When two or more nouns occur in the same construction, they are parted by a comma; as, “ The husband, wife, and children, suffered extremely." They took away their furniture, clothes, and stock in trade.

From this rule there is mostly an exception, with regard to two nouns closeiy connected by a conjunction; as, “. Virtue and vice form a strong contrast to each other.' “ Libertines call religion bigotry or superstition." If the parts connected are not short, a comma may be inserted, though the conjunction is expressed; as,“ Romances may be said to be miserable rhapsodies, or dangerous incentives to evil.

RULE 4.-Two or more adjectives, belonging to the same substantive, are likewise separated by commas; as, “Plain, honest truth wants no artificial covering." “David was a brave, wise, and pious man.”

But two adjectives immediately connected by a conjunction, are not separated by a conma; as, “ Truth is fair and artless." « We must be wise or foolish: there is no medium."

Rule 5.-Two or more verbs, having the same nominative case, and immediately following one another, are also separated by commas; as,

16 Virtue supports in adversity, moderates in prosperity." In a letter we may advise, exhort, comfort, request, and discuss."

T'wo verbs immediately connected by a conjunction, are an exception to the ule; as, “ The study of natural history expands and elevates the mind.”

Two or more participles are subject to a similar rule and exception.

RULE 6.-Two or more adverbs immediately succeeding each other, must be separated by commas; as,“ We are fearfully, wonderfully framed.Wo must act prudently, steadily, and vigorously."

When iwo adverbs are joined by a conjunction, they are not parted by a comma; as, “Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously.”.

RULE 7.-When participles are followed by something that depends upon them, they are generally separated from the rest of the sentence by commas as, “ The king, approving the plan, put it in execution.” “ His talents, formed for great enterprises, could not fail of rendering him conspicuous."

RULE 8.-When a conjunction is parted by a phrase or sentence from the verb to which it belongs, such intervening phrase has usually a comma at each extremity; as, “ They set out early, and, before the dawn of day, arrived at the destined place."

RULE 9.-Expressions in a direct address are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, “ My son, give me thy heart.” “I am obliged to you, my friends, for your many favors."

RULE i/.—The case absolute, and the infinitive mood absolute, are separated by commas from the body of the sentence; as, His father dying, he succeeded to the estate.' “Ai length, their ministry performed, and race well run, they left the world in peace.” " To confess the truth, I was much in fault."

Rule 11.–Nouns in apposition, that is, nouns added to other nouns in the same case, by way of explication or illustration, when accompanied with adjuncts, are set off by commas; as, “ Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was sentence admit of a pause? If so, where, and what is state what points should be placed in this sentence, the rule?" I remember with gratitude his goodness and the rule for it? State the exceptions. to me." Wiil you state how this sentence should be “The king approving the plan, put it in execution.” pointed, and the rule for it? Will you state the ex. Will you state how this sentence should be pointed, and ception to this rule ?

Plain hopest truth wants no artificial covering." “They set out early and before the dawn of day arWill you state how this sentence should be pointed, rived at the destined place." Will you state the rule and the rule for it? What exception is there to this for pointing this sentence, and others of a similar sule? “Virtue supports in adversity, moderates in kind'? prosperity." Will you state how this sentence should “My son give me thy heart.” What is the rule be printed, and the rule for it? State the exceptions for printing this sentence ? oth s rule.

"Paol the apostlo of the Gentiles was eminent " Ve are fearfully, wonderfully made. Will you for his zeal and kpowledge." Will you state hon

the rule for it?

eminent for his zeal and knowledge.” “The butterfly, child of the summe. fiutters in the sun."

But if such nouns are single, or only form a proper name, they are not di. vided; as, “ Paul the apostle." The emperor Antoninus wrote an excellent book."

RULE 12.-Simple members of sentences, connected by comparatives, are for the most part distinguished by a comma'; as, “ As the hart panteth after the water-brooks, so doth my soul pant after thee." Better is a dinner of herhs with love, than a stalled ox and hatred with it."

If the members in comparative sentences are short, the comma is, in general, belter omitted; as, “How much better is it to get wisdom than gold!"

RULE 13.-When words are placed in opposition to each other, or with some marked variety, they require to be distinguished by a comma; as,

“Though deep, yet clear; though gentle, yet not dull ;

Strong, without rago ; without o'erflowing, full." “Good men, in this frail, imperfect state, are often found not only in union with, but in opposition to the views and conduct of one another.”

Sometimes, when the word with which the last preposition agrees, is single, it is better to omit the comma before it; as, “ Many states were in alliance with, and under the protection of Rome."

“ The same rule and restriction must be applied when two or more nouns refer to the same preposition; as, “ He was composed both under the threatening, and at the approach, of a cruel and lingering death."

RULE 14.-A remarkable expression, or a short observation, somewhat in the manner of a quotation, may be properly marked with a comma; as, “ It hurts a man's pride to say, I do not know.” “Plutarch calls lying, the vico of slaves."

RULE 15.-Relative pronouns are connective words, and generally admit a comma before them; as, He preaches sublimely, who lives a sober, righteous, and pious life.”

But when two members or phrases are closely connected by a relative, restraining the general notion of the antecedent to a particular sense, the comma should be omitted; as, “ Self-denial is the sacrifice which virtue must make."

The fifteenth rale applies equally to cases in which the relative is not expressed, but understood; as," It was from piety, warm and unaffected, that his morals derived strength."..

RULE 16.-A simple member of a sentence, contained within another, or following another, must be distinguished by a comma; as, “ To improve time whilst we are blessed with health, will smooth the bed of sickness.” “Very often, while we are complaining of the vanity and the evils of human life, we make that vanity, and we increase those evils."

If, however, the members succeeding each other are very closely connected, the comma is unnecessary; as, “ Revelation tells us how we may attain hap. piness."

When a verb in the infinitive mood follows its governing verb, with several words between them, those words should generally have a comma at the end of them; as,“ It ill becomes good and wise men, to oppose and degrade one another."

Several verbs in the infinitive mood, having a common dependence, and succeeding one another, are also divided by commas; as, “To relieve the indigent, to comfort the afflicted, to protect the innocent, to reward the deserving, are humane and noble employments.”

RULE 17.-When the verb to be is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, which, by transposition, might be made the nominative case to it, the former


this sentence should be pointed, and the rule for it? righteous and pious life.” Will you state how this "As the bart panteth after the water-brooks so doth sentence should be pointed, and the rule for it? Win my soul pant after thee." How should this sentence you state when the comma should be omitted? Door de pointed, and what is the rule for it?

this rule apply to cases in which the relativo is az. Though deep yet clear though gentle yet not dull.” pressed ? Give an example. How shoald this sentence be pointed, and what is the "To improve time whilst we are blessed with rulo for it? State the exception to this rule. “It health will smooth the bed of sickness." How shond hurts a man's pride to say I do not know." How this sentence be pointed, and wbat is the rule te > should this

sentence be pointed, and what is the rule Will you state the exceptions to this rulo? for it? “He preaches sublimely who live a sbor

6 The

is generally separated from the latter verb by a comma; as, “The most obvious remedy is, to withdraw from all associations with bad men.” first and most obvious remedy against the infection, is, to withdraw from all associations with bad men."

RULE 18.When adjuncts or circumstances are of importance, and often when the natural order of them is inverted, they may be set off by commas; as,“ Virtue must be formed and supported, not by unfrequent acts, but by daily and repeated exertions." “ Vices, like shadows, towards the evening of life, grow great and monstrous."

RULE 19.- Where the verb is understood, a comma may often be properly introduced. This is a general rule, which, besides comprising some of the preceding rules, will apply to many cases not determined by any of them; as," From law arises security; from security, curiosity ; from curiosity, knowl. 'edge.”

RULE 20.—The words nay, so, hence, again, first, secondly, formerly, novo, Lastly, once more,

above all, on the contrary, in the next place, in short, and all other words and phrases of the same kind, must generally be separated from the context by a comma.

OF THE SEMICOLON. The Semicolon is used for dividing a compound sentence into two or more parts, not so closely connected as those which are separated by a comma, nor yet so little dependent on each other as those which are distinguished by a colon.

The semicolon is sometimes used when the preceding member of the sentence does not of itself give a complete sense, but depends on the following clause; and sometimes when the sense of that member would be complete without the concluding one; as in the following instance : “ As the desire of approbation, when it works according to reason, improves the amiable part of our species in every thing that is laudable; so nothing is more destructive to them when it is governed by vanity and folly.”

OF THE COLON. The Colon is used to divide a sentence into two or more parts, less connectcd than those which are separated by a semicolon; but not so independent as separate, distinct sentences.

The colon may be properly applied in the three following cases :

1. When a member of a sentence is complete in itself, but followed by some supplemental remark, or further illustration of the subject; as, “ Nature felt ber inability to extricate herself from the consequences of guilt : the gospel reveals the plan of divine interposition and aid.”

2. When several semicolons have preceded, and a still greater pause is necessary, in order to mark the connecting or concluding sentiment; as, “A divine Legislator, uttering his voice from heaven; an almighty Governor, stretching forth his arm to punish or reward; informing us of perpetual resi prepared hereafter for the righteous, and of indignation and wrath awaiting the wicked: these are the considerations which overawe the world, which support integrity, and check guilt.”

3. The colon is commonly used when an example, a quotation, or a speech is introduced; as, “ The Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity, in these words : 'God is love."

OF THE PERIOD. When a sentence is complete and independent, and not connected in con struction with the following sentence, it is marked with a Period.

“The most obvious remedy is to withdraw from all and what is the rule for it? “ He feared want hense associations with sad men. Will you state how this he overvalued riches." Will you state how this sct segtence should be painted, and the rule for it? tence should be pointed, and the rule for it? « Vices like shadows towards the evening of life grow When is the semicolon used? When is the co great and monstrous." Will you give the rule for lon used ? In what three cases may the colon be pointing this sentence, and apply it? “From law properly applied ? wizos socurity from socarity cursosity from curiosity When is the period used ? After abbreviated werde knowledge.". Hoe hould this sentence to pointed, what poiot sbnald he used? Give examples.

The period should be used after every abbreviated werd; as, M. 8., P. 8., N. B., A. D., O.S., N. 8., &c.

THE DASH. The Dash, though often used improperly by hasty and incoherent writers, may be introduced with propriety where the sentence breaks off abrupuly; where a significant pause is required; or where there is an unexpected tum in the sentiment; as, “ If thou art he, so much respected once but, oh! how fallen! how degraded !"

INTERROGATION. A Note of Interrogation is used at the end of an interrogative sentence that is, when a question is asked; as,

“ Who will accompany me ?"

“ Shall we always be friends ?

EXCLAMATION. The Note of Exclamation is applied to expressions of sudden emotion, sur prise, joy, grief, &c., and also to invocations or addresses; as, “My friend ! This conduct amazes me !" “Bless the Lord, O my soul ! and forget not all bis benefits 1"

The interrogation and exclamation points are indeterminate as to their quantity or time, and may be equivalent, in that respect, to a semicolon, a colon, or a period, as the sense may require. They mark an elevation of the voice.

PARENTHESIS. A Parenthesis is a clause containing some necessary information, or useful remark, introduced into the body of a sentence obliquely, and which may be omitted without injuring the grammatical construction; as,

“Know, then, this truth, (enough for man to know,)

Virtue, alone, is happiness below." The parenthesis marks a moderate depression of the voice, and may be ac. companied with every point which the sense wculd require if the parenthetical characters were omitied.

Directions respecting the Use - CAPITAL LETTERS. It is proper to begin with a capital,

1. The first word of every book, chapter, letter, note, or any other piece of writing:

2. The first word after a period, and, if the two sentences are totally indenendent, after a note of interrogation or exclamation.

3. The appellations of the Deity; as, God, Jehovah, the Almighty, the Supreme Being, the Lord, Providence, the Messiah, the Holy Spirit.

4. Proper names of persons, places, streets, mountains, rivers, ships; as George, York, the Strand, the Alps, the Thames, the Seahorse.

5. Adjectives derived from the proper names of places; as, Grecian Roman, English, French, Italian, &c.

6. The first word of a quotation, introduced after a colon, or when it is in a direct form ; as, “ Always remember this ancient maxim : “Know thyself.?"

The first word of an example may also very properly begin with a capital.

7. Every substantive and principal word in the titles of books; as, Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language; Thomson's Seasons. 8. The first word of every line in poetry. 9. The pronoun I and the interjection O are written in capitals.

Other words, besides the preceding, may begin with capitals, when they are remarkably emphatical, or the principal subject of the composition.

When may the dash be introduced with propriety? tion points determinate as to their quantity or time? “Who will accompany me?” What point should be What is a parenthesis ? Give an example in which bued at the end of this sentence ?

it is used with propriety. Should the voice be clevat. To what is the note of diamation applied ? Give ed or depressed in pronouncing a parenthesis) ID erampla. - Ce exclamation and interroga. Wheu should capital letters be used?

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