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Q Or what nuinber is book, and why ? "

9. Book is of the singular number, because it means but one.

Q. Of what number is chair, and why?
Q. What does the word plural mean?
10. It means more than one.
Q. Of what number is lamps, and why?

11. Lamps is of the plural number, because it means more than one.

Q. Of what number is inkstand, and why?

Q. By adding s to cove, we have doves, and es to box, we have boxes How, then, is the plural number of nouns usually formed ?

12. By adding s or es to the singular.

Q. Will you spell the plural of ounce? glass ? window ? theatre? antece. dent? church? lubyrinth ?

Q. How many numbers do nouns appear to have, and what are they? 13. Two, the singular and plural

Q. Will you name a noun of the singular number? one of the plural Qumber?

III. GENDER.

Q. What does the word gender mean ? 14. Gender signifies sex. Q. What does the word masculine mean? 15. It means male. Q. John is the name of a male: of what gender or sex, then, is John ? 16. Of the masculine or male gender. Q. What nouns, then, are said to be of the masculine gender ? 17. The names of males. Q. What gender, then, is man, and why?

18. Man is of the masculine gender, because it is the name of a male.

Q. Of what gender is uncle, and why? father? why?
Q. What does feminine mean?
19. It means female.
Q. Susan is the name of a female : of what gender, then, is Susan?
20. Of the feminine gender.
Q. What nouns, then, are said to be of the feminine gender?
2! The names of females.
Q. What gender is woman, and why?

22. Woman is of the feminine gender, because it is ne name of a female.

Q. Of what gender is aunt, and why? daughter? why?
Q. What does the word neuter mean?
23. It means neither.

Q. Chair is the name neither of a male nor a female : what gender, then may it properly be called?

24. Neuter gender.
Q. What nouns, then, may be said to be of the neuter gendes ?

25. The names of objects that are neither males nos females.

Q. of what gender is ink stand, and why? 26. Neuter gender, because it is the name neithe. of a male nor female.

Q. Of what gender is bench? why? chair? why?

Q. Parent, you know, is the name either of father or mother, that is, it is a name common to both : of what gender, then, shall we call such nouns a par ent, bird, &c. ?

21. Common gender.
Q. What nouns, then, may be said to be of the common gender?

28. The names of such animals as may be either males or females.

Q. Of what gender is sheep, and why?

29. Sheep is of the common gender, because it is the name either of a male or female.

Q. Of what gender is robin, and why?
2. How many genders do nouns appear to have, and what are they?

30. Four—the masculine, the feminine, the neuter, and the common.

Q: Will you name a noun of the masculine gender ? one of the feminine ? one of the neuter ? one of the common ?

Q. Will you name the gender and number of each noun in the following sentences, as I read them to you?

“ James and William." “Slate and pencil."
- John and the girls.” “ Women and birds."

IV. PROPER AND COMMON NOUNS.

Q. What is the meaning of the word common; as, “A common complaint" ?

31. Common means general.

Q. Although there are a vast many male children in the world, each one may be called by the general name of boy: what kind of a noun, then, would you call boy?

32. A common noun.
Q. When, then, is a noun called common ?
33. When it is a general name
Q. What does the word proper mean?
34. It means fit or particular.

Q. John, you know, is the particular name of a coy: waat kind of a noun. then, may it be called ?

35. A proper noun.
Q. When, then, may a noun be called proper ?
36. When it is a particular name.
Q. What kind of a noun is Susan, and why?

37. Susan is a proper noun, because it is a particular name.

Q. What kind of a noun is John, and why?

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Q. What kind of a noun is river, and why?

38. River is a common noun, because it is a gene ral name.

Q. How many kinds of nouns do there appear to be, and what are they?

Q. What kind of a noun is girls ? Mary? town? New York ? London boat ? chain ?

Q. Will you now tell me which words are the nouns in the following sen. tences, which are proper, and which common; also their gender and number?

“Thomas and John." King and queen. 6. Susan and Mary.“ House and barn."

V. PERSON.

Q. When a person, in speaking, says, “I, John, will do it,” what person do grammarians call Jóhn? 39. The first person. Q. When, then, is a noun of the first person ? 40. When it is the name of the person speaking:

Q. When I say, “ James, mind your studies," what person do grammarians call James? 41. The second person, being the person spoken to. Q. When, then, is a noun of the second person ?

42. When it is the name of the person spoken to, or addressed.

Q. “William, James has come.” What person is William, and why?

43. Of the second person, because William is spoken to.

Q. When I say, “William, James has come," I am speaking to William about James of what person, then, is James, and why?

44. Of the third person, because James was spoken of; that is, I was talking about James.

Q. When, then, is a noun of the third person ? 45. When it is spoken of.

Q. “ Thomas, Rufus is in the garden." What person is Thomas ? why! Is Rufus ? why?

Q. How many persons do nouns appear to have, and what are they? 46. Three persons—the first, second, and third.

Q. Will you inform me which of the following nouns are proper, which common; also their gender, number, and person ?

I, James, of Boston." " Boy and girl.”
Henry, study your book.” “ William and his sister.'

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Q. We say of an animal, for instance a horse, when he is fat, that “ He is in a good case”; and, when he is lean, that “He is in a bad case''. what therefore, does the word case mean?

47. Case means condition, state, &c.

Q. When I say,
“Charles strikes William,"

..? " William strikes Charles," you may perceive that the state or condition of Charles in the former example is quite different from his state or condition in the latter: in the one, Charles strikes; in the other, he is struck : what, then, is meant by the different cases of nouns ?

48. The different condition or position they have in relation to other words in the same sentence.

Q. What does the word nominative mean? 49. Nominatice means naming:

Q. When I say, “ John strikes,” he evidently does something: what, then, may John be called ?

50. An actor or doer.

Q. Well, then, as the actor or doer is considered the naming or leading noun, in what case is John, when I say, “ John strikes” ?

51. In the nominative case.
Q. What, then, is the nominative case of nouns ?
52. The nominative case is the agent or doer
Q. When I

say,

“The dog runs,” in what case is dog, and why? 53. Dog is in the nominative case, because it is the agent, actor, or doer.

Q. The cat catches mice.”. In what case is cat, and why?

Q. When I say, “Thomas is pursuing the thief," what is the object here vhich Thomas is pursuing ?.

54. Thief. Thief
Q. What does the word objective mean?
55. It means belonging to the object.

Q. In what case, then, may thief be reckoned, in the phrase, “ Thomas pursues the thief” ?

56. In the objective case. Q. What, then, does the objective case denote? 57. The objective case denotes the object. Q. When I say, “ William whips John," in what case is John, and why?

58. In the objective case, because John is the object.

Q. What does the word possessive imply?
59. Possession, ownership, property, &c.

Q. When I “ It is John's slate," I mean to say that John owns the slate : in what case, then, shall we reckon John's ?

60. In the possessive case. Q. What, then, does the possessive case of nouns denote? 61. The possessive case denotes possession, prop

say,

erty, &c.

Q. When I say, “ Peter's knife," who owns or possesses the knife ?
Q. In what case, then, is Peter's, and why?

62. In the possessive case, because Peter possesses the knife.

Q. In the example " John's slate," you perceive that John's ends in s, with a comma before it: what is the comma, and what is the s, called in grammar ?

63. The comma is called an apostrophe, and the s, an apostrophic s.

Q. You also perceive that John's is singular : how, then, do nouns in the singular number usually form their possessive case ?

64. By taking after them an apostrophe with the letter s following it.

Q. “On eagles' wings.” Here eagles' is plural, and in the possessive case : how, then, do nouns in the plural usually form their possessive case ?

65. Simply by taking the apostrophe without the addition of s.

Q. But if the plural noun does not end in s, as, “men's concerns," how is the possessive case formed ?

66. As the same case in the singular number is formed.

Q. From the foregoing remarks, how many cases do nouns appear to have, and what are they?

67. Three--the nominative, possessive and objective.

Q. Decline sometimes means to vary the endings of a word: what, then, do I mean when I ask you to decline a noun ?

68. To tell its different cases or endings.
Q. Will you decline John?

69. Nominative case, John.
Possessive case,

John's.
Objective case,

John.
Q. Will you decline boy, in both numbers?.
Singular.

Plural.
70. Nom. Boy.

Nom. Boys
Poss. Boy's.

Poss. Boys'.
Obj. Boy.

Obj. Boys.
Q. When I say "William's coat,” you perceive that the noun coat follows
William's: by what is William's said to be governed, and why?

71. By coat, because it follows William's.
Q. What, then, may be considered a rule for governing the possessive

RULE I.
The possessive case is governed by the following

noun. Q.“ William's hat.” Is William's a proper or common noun ? Why? 136.)*

Q. What is its person? why? (45.)* Its number? why? (8.)* Its gender ? why? (17.)*' Its case? why? (61.)* What noun follows 'William's ? •What word, ihen, governs William's? What is the rule ?

Q. When we mention the several properties of the different words in sentences, in the same manner as we have those of William's, above, what is the exercise called ? 72. PARSING.

EXERCISES IN PARSING.

John's knife.” 73. John's is a noun, because it is a name—PROPER, because it is a particular name—MASCULINE GENDER; it is the name of a male—THIRD PERSON; it is spoken of_SINGULAR

* Refer hack to this number,

case ?

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