## Elements of X-ray DiffractionIntended to acquaint the reader with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main applications. The book is a collection of principles and methods stressing X-ray diffraction rather than metallurgy. The book is written entirely in terms of the Bragg law and can be read without any knowledge of the reciprocal lattice. It is divided into three main parts— Fundamentals; experimental methods; and applications. Designed for beginners, not as a reference tool for the advanced reader. |

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Page 35

Accidental equality may occur, as shown by an example in Sec. 2–4.) - Bravais

Lattice System Axial lengths and angles lattice symbol Cubic Three equal

right angles to:--- a = b = c, a = B = y = 90° y Face-centered F Three

Accidental equality may occur, as shown by an example in Sec. 2–4.) - Bravais

Lattice System Axial lengths and angles lattice symbol Cubic Three equal

**axes**atright angles to:--- a = b = c, a = B = y = 90° y Face-centered F Three

**axes**at right ...Page 38

Some symmetry elements of a cube. (a) Reflection plane. At becomes A2. (b)

Rotation

: A1 becomes A4. (c) Inversion center. A1 becomes A2. (d) Rotation-inversion

Some symmetry elements of a cube. (a) Reflection plane. At becomes A2. (b)

Rotation

**axes**. 4-fold**axis**: A1 becomes A2; 3-fold**axis**: Ai becomes As; 2-fold**axis**: A1 becomes A4. (c) Inversion center. A1 becomes A2. (d) Rotation-inversion

**axis**.Page 39

Table 2–2 Symmetry Elements System Minimum symmetry elements Cubic Four

3-fold rotation

Orthorhombic Three perpendicular 2-fold rotation (or rotation-inversion)

Table 2–2 Symmetry Elements System Minimum symmetry elements Cubic Four

3-fold rotation

**axes**Tetragonal One 4-fold rotation (or rotation-inversion)**axis**Orthorhombic Three perpendicular 2-fold rotation (or rotation-inversion)

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### Contents

The characteristic spectrum | 8 |

Filters | 19 |

Detection of xrays | 27 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption alloy angle arrangement atoms axes axis Bragg calculated called camera cause circle consider constant contains corresponding counter counting crystal cubic curve depends described determined diffracted beam diffraction lines diffractometer direction distance effect electron elements energy equal equation error example factor Figure film given gives grain hexagonal incident beam increases indices intensity involved kind known lattice Laue less located means measured metal method normal Note observed obtained occur orientation parallel parameter particular pattern percent phase photographic plane pole position possible powder problem produced projection proportional pulses radiation rays reference reflection relation relative result rotation sample scattering shown in Fig shows simple single solid solution spacing specimen sphere standard stress structure substance surface temperature transmission tube twin unit cell usually various vector voltage wave wavelength x-ray zone