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THE

| MEDICO-LEGAL JOURNAL

Published under the Auspices of the Medico-Legal Society of New York.

CLARK BELL, ESQ., EDITOR.

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ASSOCIATE EDITORS:
LEGAL.

MEDICAL
HON. DAVID DUDLEY FIELD, N. Y. PROF. R. O. DOREMUS, N. Y.
JUDGE CALVIN E. PRATT, Brooklyn. THOMAS STEVENSON, M. D., London.
AUSTIN ABBOTT, Esq., N. Y.

PROF. JOHN J. REESE, Philadelphia.
RICHARD B. KIMBALL, Esq., N. Y. PROF. VICTOR C. VAUGHAN, of Mich.
JUDGE C. G. GARRISON, Camden, N. Y. J. J. O'DEA, M. D., Stapleton, N. Y.
WILLARD C. HUMPHREYS, Esq., M. D. FERD. C. VALENTINE, M. D., N. Y.
JUDGE JOHN F. DILLON, N. Y.

A. M. FERNANDEZ, M. D., Cuba.
JUDGE H. M. SOMERVILLE, Ala.

EDWARD PAYSON THWING, M. D., N. Y.
JUDGE A. L. PALMER, of New Brunswick. GEORGE B. MILLER, M. D., of Phil.
Prof. W. L. BURNAP, of Vermont. JULES MOREL, M. D., of Belgium.
MORITZ ELLINGER, Esq., New York. NORMAN KERR, M. D., of London.
T. GOLD FROST, Esq., Minnesota.

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VOL. X.

NEW YORK :
MEDICO-LEGAL JOURNAL.

THE MEDICO-LEGAL JOURNAL.

A Quarterly devoted to the Science of Medical Jurisprudence, PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE MEDICO-LEGAL SOCIETY OF THE

CITY OF NEW YORK.

This Journal will publish the leading papers of tho Medico-Legal Society, and a resume of its transactions. Its columns will at the same time be open to contributions from all sources and from all parts of the world, on appropriato subjects and questions. It will endeavor to chronicle interesting facts and scientiic deductions within its domain, and keep a record of current events, especially in the trial of cases in the courts which involve Medico-Legal questions

The Price of the Medico-Legal Journal has been fixed at $2.00 per annum or 75 cents per copy, in the hope and with the expectation of its receiving a generous support from all classes of intelligent readers. Every branch and department of MedicoLegal Science will be carefully represented, and assurances have been received from the ablest professional names in Law and Medii ine of efficiont aid and support by way of contributions to those columns. While closely connected with the Medico-Legal Society, that institution assumes no responsibility for what appears in these pages. Authors whose articles appear with their names, are solely responsible therefor. The circulation has increased fourfold since the first is ue and is constantly increasing Copies of this number will be sent to some believed to be interested in the science, in tho hope of obtaining their subscriptions a d support. As will be seen, the Journai. ha- become a valuable advertising medium, as it reaches both professions and th“ great libraries.

Subscriptions are solicited, which may be made to any officer of the Medico-Legal Society, or io CLARK BELL, Esq., 57 Broadway, N. Y., of whom specimen copies can be obtained or application, at a cost of 40 cents each,

Members not receiving their Journal promptly will please notify the Secretary, Willard C. Humphreys, Esq., New York City.

The publishers will pay $1.50 per copy for No. 1., Vol. 1., in good condition, the edition being wholly exhausted.

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The following are the EXCHANGE JOURNALS: The Alienist and Neurologist; American Journal of Insanity; American Law'Register; Archives of Pediatrics; Archives de la Psychiatrie Clinique et Legale et de Neurologie; Academie de Medicine de Paris; American Journal of Science; American Chemical Journal ; Archives of Gynaecology; American Law Review ; Atlanta Medical and Surgical;

Asylum Jonrnal; Annales Medico-l'sychologique; American Law Jourral; Archivio di Psi Sci pen, et antro crim.; Archives de Neurologic;

Annales Soclete Mentale de Belge; The Asclepiad; Analectii. Archivio par la Malatta Narvosa; Army and Navy Journal ; Babyhood; Brain; Buffalo Medical Jour nal ; British Medical; Boston Medical and Surgical Journal; “Cronica Medica Quirurgica;" Canadian Practinoner; Central Law Journal; Cent. Reporter; Chicago Med. Times; Church Union;

: and Legal Pri and Verve Path. Kharkoff, Russia; Centralblatt fur Nerv.; Col. Law Reporter, Canadian Law Times; Compte Rendu Generale; Der Irrenfreund; Der Gerichtssaal ; Hygiea; Del Kongelige Sundhedskollegiums fordhandinger Medecinalberetning fur Kongeriget, Denmark; L'Encephale; Frank Leslie's Monthly; Friedrich's Blatter;

Fort Wayne Medical Journal; Fordhand Svensta Lakare Salls kapts; Georgia Law Reporter; Guy's Hospital Reports ; Gazetta del Tribunal; Giornale di Neuropatulogia; Johns Hopkins University ; Hygienic Society of Athens, Greece ; Gaceta del Hopital Militar; Gerichtí Zeitung, Vienna; Gazette des Hopitanx;

Irish Law Times; Illinois State Board Health ; Iowa State Med. Reporter ;

Journal of In ebricty ; Journal of Mental Science ; Jouenal of Nervous and Mental Diseases; Journalo of Jurisprudence; Journal of Meridity; Jahrbucher fur Psychiatrie; Kansas City Medical Index; Knowledge; La. Psi, la Neurol. e. Sci., London Lancet ; Littell's Living Age; Law Quarterly Review ; Legal Adviser ; Le Progress Modicale, Louisville Modical News; London Medical Record; Medical Bulletin; New York Medical Record : Medical Gazette; Massschusetts State

Board of Health ; Lunacy and Charity ; Medical Era;

Medical and Surgical Herald ; Medico-Legal Society of Massachusetts; Medical Summary; Medical Annales; Messenger of Neurology and

Forensic Psycopathology, St. Petersbnrg; Now England Medical; New Princeton Review : Nouvells Archives de Obstet, and Gynecol. Notes of cases; New

England Reporter; North American Review ; New Englander : New Orleans Med. and Sury. New York State Board of Health; Nordisk Medicinskt Arkiv ;

Philadelphia Medical Times ; Phrenological Journal; Polyclinic; Revue Philosophique ; Revista Clinica de Bologna ; Revue De Medicine; Revue Medicale; Repertorie de Pharmacie; Scotch Board of Lunacy ; Sanitarian ; Sanitary Record; St. Louis Periscope; Smithsonian Institute; Societe Medicine Legale de France; Societe D'Anthropologie, Brussels : Society for Promoting the Welfare of the Insane; Scienza Italiana.; St. Louis Courier of Medicine ; Bulletin Societe de Medicine Mentale Belgique; The Hahnemanian; The Eclectic Magazine; Tennessee Seate Board of Health ; Texis Law Reporter: Therapeutique Contempor traine, Virginia Medical Monthly; Western Lancet; Western Reporter: Woman's Century: Zeitschrift fur Psychiatre. The Jurist; Lippencott's Magazine; Godey's Lady Book; The Theatre; Joura de Medicine Scribner's Magazine; Grip; Cosmopolitan; The Cape Law Journal; Curio; Remta Cinetipea do Venezuela; The Overland Monthly; The Chantauquan: Columbia Law I'imes; The Mazazine of American History: The Forum: The American Journal of Psychology: Il Pisania Gazetta Secula; Country Gentleman; Corning Journal; Archives d'Anthropologie Crimin. alle; Brooklyn Medical Journal; Denver Legal News; The English Nursing Record; Pacific Record of Medicine and Pharmacy: Revista de Neuralogie Psychiatua; Revista de Anthropologie: Criminella of Ciencias Medico-Legales, University Medical Magazine: Criminal Law Magazine; Revista de Anthropologia Criminal (Madrid.); Revista de Neurol. and Phy. (Lisbon.); Quarterly Review of Narcotio Inebriety; Lancet Pub. Co.; The Advocate; The Green Bag: Sun and Shade; Archivio Giurdico; Zeitscrift fur Schweizer Strafecht; Time; The Open Court: Current Literature; Magazine of Western History; The Arena: Harvard Law Review; Daisy Doctor: Revista Cleina; Archives Italian; Revista Penale; L'Authropologie; Revista Ciencas Medicas; The Juridicial Review: The Monist; Revue de la Hypnotism.

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PORTRAITS OF MEDICO-LEGAL. JURISTS AND MEDICAL, MEN.
JUDGE O. H. HORTON,

JUDGE WILLIAM H. STEWART,
Chicago, II.

Columbus, Ohio,
PROF. HENRI A. MOTT, JR., JUDGE LOCKE E. HOUSTON, PROF. VICTOR C. VAUGHAN
New York City.
Aberdeen, Miss.

Ann Arbor, Mich.
JUDGE JOHN H. MCARTHY,

HOX. GEORGE W. TYLER,
Xew York City

Belton, Texas.
RICHARD DEWEY, M.D.,

L. L. MIAL, M. D..

W. S. WATSON, M.D., (Supt. State Insane Hospital, (Late Ass't Physician N. J. State Hospital. Morris Plains.) (River View Home,) Kankakee, III. New York City,

Fishkıll, N. Y. HUBBARD W. MITCHELL, M.D.,

('. O. B. WINGATF M D., New York City.

( Health Commissioner.) Milwaukee, Wis.

MECHANICAL RESTRAINT IN THE CARE

AND TREATMENT OF THE INSANE*

BY CLARK BELL, ESQ.

)

The report of the Edinburgh meeting certainly conveys the impression that the majority of the speakers approve of the use of restraint. But the practice of some of them scarcely bears out this theoretical expression of opinion. Thus Dr. Clouston applies restraint in surgical cases only, and where the suicidal disposition is exceptionally pronounced. Dr. Turnbull's practice is the same, but he distinctly states that he restricts the appliance in the suicidal cases to night. The form I infer to be always “locked gloves.” Dr. Rorie only uses the “gloves” in “extreme cases,” but he does not specify what these are. Now I have always understood that even Conolly fully allowed the use of mechanical restraint in surgical cases. I am inclined to think, too, that even though a medical superintendent orders a pair of locked gloves to the hands of a highly suicidal patient at night, the hands being otherwise free, in rare and extreme cases, but only in such cases, he may still be claimed among the supporters of non-restraint. But whatever opinion is entertained on this point, there can be no doubt that the position of at least Drs. Yellowlees, Urquhart, and Johnson is very different. As the views expressed by Dr. Yellowlees were fully endorsed by the two other gentlemen, we turn to him for an exposition of his opinions. These were put very definitely before the meeting, He thinks that the use of mechanical restraint is required in four classes of cases. I quote his words: “1. In cases where the suicidal impulse is intensely strong. I have no hesitation whatever in putting gloves on these patients for their own safety and the protection of the attendants in charge of them. 2. In cases of extreme and exceptional violence. I think the use of gloves often wise in such cases. Once or twice I have used side-arm dresses, although not for many years. 3. In extremely destructive cases. 4. The helpless aud incessantly restless patients, who day and night roll about the room," etc. For the last class he recommends the “protection bed." This, as I saw it many years since in an American asylum, is a deep and narrow box-bed, with a sparred lid or cover. The patient lies on a mattress in the bottom of it, and the lid, which is locked, prevents him from rising into the erect posture.

It seems to me that a question of this kind can only be determined by results. Comparison should be made between asylums in which restraint is used to the extent advocated by Dr. Yellowlees and those where Conolly's principles are still in force—where there is a minimum of restraint. This can be best done by a candid statement of experience based on a long series of years. I shall do so myself, and at the same time invite Dr. Yellowlees or any other gentleman who may concur in his views to put his experience also on record. In order that the comparison may be as

*Continued from page 399, Vol. IX, No. 4.

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