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They know not that the foe's red hand
None dare to name the patriot dead,
Some solace for their griet' w buriow; For there it is a crime to shed,
One secret, silent teai of sorrow. Britain, I love thee, for thy smile
Hata cheerd a wand'rer on his way, And lil his footsteps iv thive isle
Whose white cliff's know no tyrant's sway. I love thy pow'ry hills and meads,
Thy lordly, sons, and hright-eyed daughters, Tby many heroes whose great deeds
Have made thee mistress of the waters.
Ep. C. M. REMARKS ON THE CULTIVATON
OF TE SUGAB CANE IN TBB ISLAND OF CEYLON, BY JOBIAS LAX BERT E8Q. 1. Q. A
Ar a period when public attention is directed to this important brauch of Agriculture, in a Colony, which then its sui aid clia mate offers all tbe advantages thai possibly can be required for its complete developenient; "I on induced to ofier in forberance of its extension, a lew observations which may assist these with, out practical knowledge, mind enable othe's who have a desire to embark in sugar plavitationis 10 do so with a degree of confidence satisfactory to their views regarding expenditure and pre bable results--and in presenting niysell wjib These objects, it becomes me only to observe; that whai folloss is the result of nearly tifieen years of practical experience in the cultue of the cane aid manu. facture of its producis, in the South of E1100e under a senial of £4 per acre per unnum with free labor und with an average produce of 4,500 lbs. Raw Sugar per acre.
Accustomed to observe the nature of the soils best adapted to the culuiire of ihe cane and from a close exammation of the Galle and Drombera districts, together with many one'is, I am lead to the conte clus.on that very few spots in this Island where inganion is prace cicable, or where depıl of soil and letchliveness on naisine, is evident, can there be any probability of failure. It has frequemily been objected that chena 'lands und paddy fields pieviously ex. bausted by cropping, have lost thur virtue,' and from a nisiaken notion it it believed that notbing but virgiu luresi jand is worthly of consideration; the mistake bere made, nilisi le obvious to any agriculturist, who is well aware that crops of difierrni gains may in succession be grown on the thie same land, rejtmig only once in four, tive or six years of the rotation, a fallow, or the inerval of a green crop with manure or absolute repose in grass ; consequelle ly there can be po 1 cason in condemning a picte of checa land because ten years previously it has borne a crop of paddy! it has had tev year's rest, has been covered by grass or perlapis the jui. gle may bave sprung upon il; these do not exhaust, vor cum ibe sun (another subject of apprehension) bare bad any influence because it has never been exposed; the paddy fields have been cone stantly under crops, but the nourishment required for this grain is ostensibly derived from water, and even it not so, that which is extracted from the soil for gain, is according to all received views upon agriculture, lotally different from that necessary for the production of roots or canes, and without entering into the argument upon the proportions of silex, alumine, live and vegetable woulds which are generally required for the production of certain graiu corps it is sufliciently proved by experience that wheai, grass, oals, turnips, barles, beans and wheat may be successively growa and the land kept in bcait. Why theu, may it be asked, is ibis
eternal paddy to be the hughear of every operation in the Island ! and why are the natives or holders of paddy fields so short sigbled and so obstinately opposed to bring under sugar coltivation Those grounds which in paddy, yield with excessive labor and watching, in their present state, barely a subsistence? Habit and ignorance can be the only motives for the error, to which may be added on the part of large hulders of these descriptions of land, ibuir uncer. lainty of the results. In the case of paddy grounds there can be po doubt, in proof of which I would ivstance the lands of Demerara and many others of alluvial soi! and which have. been constavtly overflowed during their continuous occupation sngar grounds, and the Deltas, in the south
of Spain, wlich have carried the plant wiiboui intermission, save the year of replanting, at ihe end of seven, and even eleven years, for the extended period
Tbe chena or hill grounds falling towards the rivers in this Island are may of them capable of being brought under artificial watering during the dry season, and the majority from ibrir extreme ichness and tena eily of subsoil are satliciently retentive to hold moisture for the preservation of the cave iu ihe same period. From ihe commencement of February to the present monierit I have noi seen suffering from drought and I have known vinely days elapse in another country without rain or a possibility of irrigation, with the thermometer at a niedivm range of $20 and yes, the canes subject to such ostevsible hazard, bare produced a superior quality of sugar, although quantity deficient; excessive moisime on the contrary is productive of greater evils; it is badly possible to prevent the cane throwing out new shoots along iis whole lengh a particolar seasons, especiaily if it has 10 been planted from citings of a determined growih; the flower, or arrow, shouts in Oc.. tober from those pianted 100 early, and belore they liave atiained maturity, and when the crop time occurs, which oughi 10 be a fixed period, Ibese canes are lound in their second developement com. bining a portion of sapjuice with the saceharine, reduciug of course the quantity of the latter, and deteriorating the quality of ihe sugar produced. Such is the leracity of the soil in this Island, OL snch is the nature of the atmosphere, that in many instances the cane ought to be checked rather than stimulated in its growth. Under these circumstances, il cannot adnji of doubt that a proper season for planting once fixed, no question can exist as lo' pioduce, and experience of the operations already commenced affords sufficient proof of the value of quality obtained. This period it wonld seem should be, from the middle of April 10 ihe middle of May in the Kandy country, previous 10 the selling in of the rains, having previously Taken care to break up ihe laud bilst it still retained, moisture from the preceding rainy season, throwing it up in trenches—the first showers (in defect of irrigation) will enable the plough or the hoe to be brought into operation, and during their occurrence, that is, according to the present season the end of April heing indicated as favorable, the warmth and moisture tend to force
out the shoots before the excessive raiys of the end of May and Jane waslı off the soil covering the plants, and once :hrough, they are perfectly sale, and yet will not from the want of sun, advance so rapidly as lo arrow in October, excepting in those highly rich portions of soil, which force the plant forward as if it were in a hot bed. Once past this period without exhibiting a disposition to arrow, ihe cane will push forward wųh amazing vigoi towards maturity and in March or April following will be fit to çut, and should even the signs of complete ripeness not appear, not on this account sbonld it be allowed to slaud, for so as iç is infis enced by the ruins, it will immediately sprout not into flower, but every bud upon the joints will shew fresh sboots, the sap changes in vature and no longer dues the saçeharine juice exist pure, it experiences a modification and what would otherwise prodnce sugar is now converted into that destined for the develope. ment of the germs and nourishment of the shoots produced from ibem.
In selecting an estat e, it becomes necessary to combine as many as practicable of the following requisites, endeavouring in the first instance, il possible to fix upon a free loamy soil, with gentle de clivities, clayey land is not so good for first crops on account of jts sti Iness, but the addition of lime and ashes from the boiling konse fires will in the course of a year or two render it admirably adapted for any purpose; the acqnirement of, or proximity to furest ground for the supply of fuel, whether steam or water power be employed, is very desirable, in the former case indispensable; facility of transport by good roads, or water couveyance must be considered, and that of obtaining timber and building materials; the existence of a stream of water is an item of such importance, that a great portion of other advantages might readily be waved for this consideration; pasture lands for stock are very desirable and if they cannot be obtained, ariificial
Indian corn and Plaotains sbould occupy every spare piece of ground.
(To be Comlinued.)
By far the greator number of the at intervals, into smaller passages, primitive Christians were buried in which agaiu led into a variety of cham. subterranean sepulchres. As, during bers; and on either side of ihem were the first three hundred years the sword several rows of niches, pierced in the of persecution was constantly impend. wall, serving as catacombs, aud filled ing over their heads, and dear-bought with coffius. The chambers were paintexperience taught them, that their ed, for the most part, like the churches, only safety lay either in withdrawing with passages of history from the old to uninhabited deserts; or sheltering and New Testaments. In the centra themselves in inaccessible hiding holes, of the large street was an open square, multitudes, who preferred the latter large and commodious as a market. alternative, died, and were interred place, in which those who took re. in their places of retreat. These serv. suze there, in those troublous times, ed at once as their home and their were wont to congragute for worship; burying place; and, as it was natural and the comfort of which, as a placa that they should wish to have the of abode, was greatly promoted by ibie bodies of their departed brethren cou.
liberal iise which the Christiars mado veyed to the samo peaceful and in- of spices and perfumes on their dead. violable sanctuaries, it became, first in the more distant of these ceme. froin necessity, and afterwards froin teries, whose remotevess rendered them choice, the approved and intrariable less liable to be listurbed, there were fractice of the Christians to deposit small apertures left in she surface of their dead in deep and obscure ca
the ground, through wbich a dim twi. verns. These, owing to the vast mul
light was adınitteú; but the other where titudes who fell simaltaneously in times these were closed,
absolutely of persecution, and to whom, excepi dark, and except by the aid of lights, in some few cases, the rites of bil impassable; so that, on any sudden. rial were not refused; evidently required surprise, the efugees had only to to be of no ordinary magnitude; and extinguish their lamps to insure their accordingly-at what time is incer safety from the invasion of the enetain, but at an early period,--the cha. mies. The depth of these raults was rity of soine wealiby friends of their sometimes so great, that two or three
above and body put them in possession of ceme. storeys were ranged one teries, which remained ever after the ther; and the whole aspect of the coinmon property of the believers. place conveyed the impression of a Among the monuments of Christian cits under ground.- History of the Pris antiquity, none are more singular than mitive Christians, these abodes of the dead; and
ODDITIES GRRAT .-The feels at a loss whether most to ad. greatest men are often affected by the mire their prodigious extent, the la- most trivial circunstances, which haro borions industry that provided them, n'apparent connection with the effects or the interesting recollections with they produce. An old gentleman, of which they are associated. Like the whom we knew something, felt secure Moorish cares in Spain, they were against the cramp when he placed his generally excavated at the base of a shoes, on going to bed, so that the lovely bill, and the entrance so care. right shoe was on the left of the left fulls concealed that no aperture ap- shoe, and the toe of the right next peared, and no traces were discerni.
to the heel of the left. If he did ble-except by an experienced ere. not bring the right shoe roand the of the ground having heen penetrated, other side in that way, he was liable and of the vast dungeons that hail to the cramp.
Dr. Jobnson used al. been hollowed underneath. The de.
ways, in going up Bolt court, to put scent was made by a ladder, the foot one foot upon each stone of the pare. of which stood in a broad and spa. ment; if he failed, he felt certain the cious pathway, which extended like a day would be unlacky. Buffon, the street along the whole length of the celebrated naturalist, never wrote but place. This principal entrance opened, in fall dross. Dr. Routh, of Oxford,