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we left but that of the prophet? “ The heavens and the earth, shull shake But GOD will be the strength of his people, and the hope of the children of Israel."

Doubtless the ALMIGHTY has always resources at his command, and the old adlage, that “man's extremity is God's opportunity,” will again, as it has in innumerable past difficulties, be proved to be true, and the ways of the CRE, ATOR vindicated to his creatures.


says “ he has made ready his arrows against the persecutors," and it is delightful to think that these oriental researches may be carrying on for this very purpose. The words of your last number of the Quarterly Review are very striking, and express this anticipation much better than I am able to do it. “It is most pleasing and consolatory to believe, in these times of increasing scepticism, that additional testimony to the truth of his own book, for the excavations of Egypt, Syria and Palestine pea even from the very mount on which the temple itself stood, may have been resei ved, by a considerate Providence, against a day of trouble, of rebuke and of blas, poemy.”—I assure you I look forward with much pleasure to the enjoyment and profit of your conversation. In fact, I was but hovering about these Orientalisms, having confined my views altogether to the more antique part of the subject, when ideas, which you started, and the books with which you so liberally supplied me, gave a new turn and a new impetus to my studies, which I cannot help boping through your influence with Mr. Turnour, and your own knowledge of Indian affairs, may ultimately open up (to use the Scotch phraseology) new, and as transcendentalism is so much the order of the day-I will add transcendental views respecting the Government and pur. poses of the ALMIGHTY: for, as soul is superior to body and eternity to time, 60 must religious be superior to worldly, political or social objects. In fact it is not only superior, but includes them. Lest my pen should run away with me again, I will only add the words of St. Paul," Godliness is pro. fitable to all things, having promise of the life that now is, as well as of that which is to come.”

I remain, my dear Sir,

Very truly your's, (Signed) N, GILBERT,







Behold the sacred tree of Buddho! Eye
That sees it in its lofty solitude,-
Its“ pride of place,"—must be indeed indued,
With the gross worldling's dullnes to pass by,
Nor ponder on its beauty. It is biga;
And lone, upon the green hill top. I stood
Beneath its shadow. With delight I viewed
The branches, whose vast hands up to the sky
Were raised as if imploring heaven. As wide
As high their mighty arms were spread;
Leaves were enow for comeliness; but pride
of power to shroud their sinewy strength forbade :
And as this tree more thoughtfully was eyed;
It might be deemed a record of the dead.



It is such monument. This is a spot
Where we must feel sensations of mixed feat

And admiration,-where thoughts sad and drear
The mind with darkest melancholy blot,
And cloud the spirit. Brave men tremble not :
But the heart sinks within us when we hear
Our countrymen were immolated, where
To the great God t'were fitter to devote
Our hearts with thanksgiving, that on this earth.
Such chosen spots can meditation chain;
While thoughts of gladness, rather than of mirth,
Impressed by beauty, on the mind remain:
To such sweet thoughts this spot can scarce give births
Here Englishmen by sayage hands were slain.

Poetical Sketches, &c. & è



This tree is called Bogan-in English, the Bo-tree. Under its shadow Siddo harte became Buddho. Buildho's life is fabulous as to his origin and various trarisniigrations. But these fables beirig part of the idolatry of the Singhalese, and painted on the walls of their temples, become as it were iden. tified with the history of the people,-or at least interesting in reference to their wretched idolatry. As a seury, the outlines of Buddho's life are át least amusing.

The Individual, who finally became Goutama Buddho, first went through every rariety of existence. He was born an almost infinite number of times. In the life immediately before that in which he became Buddho, he was called Swatakatu, and was a God. A sign, announcing the birth of Buddho, appeared to the Gods one thousand years before the event. The sign was, & man dressed in white with a white crown on his head, flying through the air, proclaiming.-"In a thousand years Buddho will appeår.” Swatakatu disappeared in heaven at the appointed time, and was conceived in the womb of the Queen of Sodaden Bajabroo. The Queen gate birth tr Buddho in ono of the royal gardeus, in the flower season, after having touched a branch of flowers that struck her fancy. The instant she wished, the branch bent down to be gathered, and the moment she touched it, the pains of labour commenced and were speedily over. As soon as bo!n, the child walked for. ward seven steps. He appeared at the same moment to all the surrounding Gods who were in a 'circle; and to each of them at the same moment, apparently advancing towards him. The astrologers being sent for by king Sododden, pronounced that he wonld be either a Chakkra-watte king, king of the whole Sakwalla, every part of which he could visit in half an hour,-or Buddho. A famous sage, Kaladivella, on whose head the child, to his father's horror, placed his feet, discovered, hý certain infallible signs on the soles of his feet, and marks of beauty on his body, that he was to become Buddho; and that this would come to pass when he should see four things, #hich should induce him to forsake his family, to prepare himself for his high calling,—viz. a sick man, an old man, a dead body and à Tapissa.

* This account of the mythology of Buddho is drawn from Dr. Davy's fIictory of Ceylon. The word written Tapissa, ought to be, I am informed, Tnpissiya, which means an ascetic, or religious devotee. Of these there are various degrees, according to the degree of severity of penence, until their object is attained of the entire freedom from the influence of passion. The hast degree is that of Irshi, who retires into woods or forests,-ires on herbs or ronts, -and sleeps under a tree. In this state he attains to the condition of a rahat, of which accounts are various. The rahat is the state next to a Bud. dho,—that is, one entitled to final emancipation from existence,-AXNIHILATION.


The prince was called Siddharte. At sixteen he was married to tho daugh. ter of a neighbouring monarch, and had a share in the government. Tho king, fearful of losing his son, removed all the old and sick from the city, repaired the ramparts, and placed a guard at each of the four gates. All these precautions were vain. The four things were

The prince left the city, the gate of which voluntarily opened to let him and his faithful attendant depart. On the bank of the river Anoma Ganga, he threw off his royal robes, and put on those of a priest. Many signs and miracles attended this event. He sent away his favourite attendant, and entered on his new office. He underwent trials of extreme severity. His head beca no bald, and his body emaciated. He recovered his health suddenly and mira. culously; and he perceived that he was speedily about to become Buddho.

He seated himself at the foot of the sacred Banyan tree, called Ajapolle, and there received an offering of rice from a princess, who, after having been long barren, had been blessed with a child. He next went to the river Nirarjara,-made the rice into 49 balls,-ate it,--and threw the dish into the river. It floated up the stream. The same evening a Brahmin presented him with eight bundles of kusa grass, which he carried to a Bo-tree to sit on. A diamond throne, 14 cubits high, roso from the earth to receive him. He was visited by the Gods who remained with him till night. They fed on the approach' of Marea, prince of the infernal regions, who opposed him with ten bimberah of demons. He opposed him by violence, end by guile. But iu vain. Every way baffled, Marea and his infernal legions retreated; and the Gods returned to pay their homage. During the night Siddharte acquired every species of wisdom. On the following morning he became BUDDHO. From the name of his family he was distinguished by the title of Goutama BuddHO. (See Davy's Ceylon, page 206—216, of which fabulous account this is a very condensed summary.) *


of the massacre perpetrated on this spot, the following account from the Bfe of Alexander, written by himself, and edited by John Howell, author of the Joumal of a soldier, (life of John Nichol, &c. Vol. I. chap. 3. page 112.) is most striking. It is the narrative of Corporal Barnsley, who escaped, though dreadfully wounded, from the massacre of his comrades. I have met with an officer, who saw Barnsley; and the narrative is, I believo, substantially true, though almost incredible.

“ Before the period, in which the command devolved upon Major Davie of the Malay Corps, the whole of the troops bad been quite worn out by sickness

• See Appendix


and fatiguo. The weather was dreadful; for three days the rain had poured it incessant torrents; and the army was in full retreat, on the faith of a con. vention made with the treacherous natives. When they arrived on the banks of the Malivaganga, which the rains had swollen to a great height, a few of the sick, who had been left under the care of the natives, joined the re. treating army, with the horrible information that the Candians had commen: ced killing the poor helpless men; and that it was with difficulty they had escaped. This threw a damp over the minds of the whole army, who were busily preparing rafts to cross the river. When they were ready, some of the native troops swam across with the warps, and so far all wa's right; and they still had hope of escaping, when suddenly the rascally natives cuit the tow lives before their eyes. Many of them had already deserted to the enemy, whom Barnsley saw firing upon the English in their own uniform. As soon as this act of treachery was perpetrated, all hope Bled, as the enemy began to make their appearance on the opposite side to oppose the passage. Soon after the Adigar came down to Major Davie, with a propo. sal for him to deliver up Mootoosamy, (the lawful King who had been crowned at Kandy, while General Macdowal was there,) and the army would be assisted to cross the river, and get guides down to Trincomalie. Mootoo. samy delivered ap his sword to Major Davie. Both of them shed tears at parting.

The night was spent in great anxiety; but next day there was effort made by the Kandians to enable them to cross the river, nor any appearance of it. In this state of suspense the Adigar came again, amn proposed that the British should deliver up their arms, as it would be easier for them in marching, and the Kandians would be more at their ease in conducting them. This insidious proposal startled Major Dávie and his officers, when a council of war was called. At the same time, two or threo of the oldest soldiers of the 19th waited upon the Major, and requested that they might be allowed to hold a council at the same time by themselves, which was refused. Unfortunately, it was agreed by the council to comply: the men reluc. tantly obeyed with loud murmers; and some of the more ardent spirits boldly called out not to do it. The unfortunate Major, whose mind was in a dreadful agony, garo the word, “ground your arms,”--then recalled it for a short time, during whih he destroyed all his papers. At length the fatal act was done; and the troops march. ed to a distance from their arms, and halted, when the Europeans were separated from the native troops. Then the officers were likewise separated from the privates, -and Corporal Barnsley saw

They were then marched to a greater distance from their arms, and halted, when tho Candians came close up to them, staring in their faces, and demanding their clothes and other little articles. One of them seized the neckcloth of an Irish laul, one of the 19th, and began to pull it; he knocked him down at bás feet. They stood thus some time exposed to insult, when an Adigar camo running down to them, and immediately two Candians seized the two men

them no


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