« PreviousContinue »
fences, but thongh a hundred favors “ Arose before I awake; Alas ! be done to the bad they will, on
Alas! viving a singie offence regard them “ How can my eyes again know all as offences."-Múdurei.
."-Ellis. There are two versions of Auveiyar's
Like most of the philosophers of his moral waxims in English, one in Ger
age, he was
of the saiva profession, pian and another in Durch; and Beg. though the juinas contend, from his ehi, in his introduction to his Gram- having used in a distich of his kural mar of the high Tamil, speaks of their peculiar teri andanén to desigthem“ worthy of Seneca bimself."
nate the supreme being, that he be11. Tiruvalturar, a brother of An. longed to their sect.
Of his compositions, the Kural priyar and who, like her, being exposed, was brought up by a Valluvan attracted the notice of the European
literati so far back as 1730, and has or soothsayer of the pariah caste at
since been translated both into German Mailapoor, in the Carnatic. Though and English, the former by the Rev: his foster father designed him for his
Dr. Cammerer, and the latter by Messrs, own profession, yet he took care
Ellis and Clarke. have him educated in every kind of
The following distichs from the kural learning, especially poetry, logic and metaphysics. When he arrived at the
on friendship are given here as render: himsell known to the world, repaired the moon in its increase ; the friend. age of maturity, he, wishing to make ed into English by Mr. Ellis.
“ The friendship of the wise is like to the university of Madura, then in the zenith of its glory, and disputed ship of the fools like the moon in its
decrease." with, and baffled all its learned pro
“ As the pleasures of learning in. £ssors, who thereupon elected him as a member of that institution, and short friendship of the worthy increaseth by
crease by constant application ; so the Iy afterwards, when he recited before
constant intercourse." them his Kural, a didactic
“ True friendship is not that which 1330 distichs, conferred on omngst other titles that of Teivippu- that which maketh the heart rejnice.",
dimpleth the face with smiles, but lavıır, or the divine poet. Little more wan this is known of his present bis.
“ Friendship should repel all injuries,
should take the lead in the paih of tory; and it would appear, that besides the Rural he has left only shoulé share the adrersity it causeta."
virtue, and, in unavoidable misfortune a single drama called Gnâna Vettiyán, in which he has combated and expo
“ Vain is the fragile friendship, howred the pretensions of the brahmans
in thes are to us, so will we he to them.".
ever specious, which saith--Even as & most biting manner. He was marri. ed to a Vellale female, named Vashui, vieyar, brought up by a Brahman at
12 Kapiler, another brother of Allie and was so fondly attached to ber; Trivaloor, in the Carnatic-His fame that after her death he resolved never
rests principally npon a satire on casie w marry again and assumed the life
called Agaval, which he is said to haro of Yoghi, or contemplative sage.
written in consequence of the other following verse is said to have been
Brahmans in the place haring ejaculated extempore by him, while
fused to allow him the privilege of king sleepless and agitated, on the might following the decease of his wife. wearing the triple cord, on account of
of extraction by the " When I have lost a woman who ex. mother's side. He was present at the celled in the knowledge of housewifery, university of Madura when bis brother who performed rightly all domestic duties. Tiruvalwar recited his Kural before
“ Who never trangressed by word the professors, and there is still ex. op deed, who chafed my limbs, and a verse which he ejaculated on wever slumbered until I slept.
(To be Continued.)
the beriand Routt,
BY THE RETD. J. G. MACTICAR.
Freych SCENERY. France, when compared with the countries which lie around it, is very defective in fine scenery. In Spain, Germany, Switzerland a 1.1 Italy almost every da;s journey Brings with it some beutiful landxcape; but in France ove may iravel hundreds of miles without seeing even one worth the looking at. Wearisome undulations of land generally of a dirty grey colour, lines of poplar irees, - tame vivers with old willow trees on their bariks interspersed with the amphibious plantations of the basket maker ---vines cut down every year io the roots and trained updñ strong stakes which are all that is seen of the vineyard for more than half the year,---roads running in a strait line fur inany miles, with causeways in the middle and deep upsetting mud on the sides, ---untidy post houses and auberges ---brick and clay houses,—and towns which cvery where look as if decaying and hair deserted; are the too frequent elements of French scenery.
But the Rhone from Lyons to Avignon (and this is in the tract of the overlaud traveller) forms an illustrious exception to this unsatisfactory state of things. It displays at almost every turn as beautiful scenery as is to be seen any where. And most pleasing it is to be borne onwards by that noble river, while it pours its flood of waters towards the Mediterranean. It wends its sweeping course through vine-clad bills now terraced, now conical and now precipitous, the monntains of Dauphiny while bounding the horizon with their wild and jagged and as if recently upheaved heads. The villages and towns on the banks of the river and the bridges which cross it, are also in most cases pleasingly situated, and in some ihey are singularly picturesque and beautiful. But of them all, Avignon is best deserving of notice. It is a deeply interesting place, and every traveller should arrange so as to spend a day there. The first hour in Avignon is indeed one of singular annoyance. Though the #hole population does not amount to 30,000 yet so scarce is work, that nearly a hundred are licensed as porters to carry from the quay in to the town the luggage of those who land from the river. The consequence is that the moment one arrives, the steamer is furiously boarded by these idle fellows, and each piece of luggage honever trivial is seized by one of them as his share. And he makes off with it. And thus by the time the traveller is on shore, he finds himself surrounded by a retinue of men, one feigning to groan under a hat-box, another seeming much oppressed by a dressing, case, another keeping behind backs with a cloak for his share, while a fourth Dobly bears over his crisped moustaches a ponderous bullock trunk. And let the traveller be as angry as he plcases, let him bestow a good half bour indignantly spitting bad French at the whole of them, nay let
him succeed in rescuivg all his luggage and in getting it on the back of one, he finds as his owly consolation, on luis arrival af his Hotel that he has just as much to pay as if he had let the whole regiment come along with him at once. As usual ibe regulations tariff is ambigious; and the travellei filist pay. But quce fairly housed (and both Hotels are very good) Avignon is a must in structive place to spend a day in. Not but on a general view it is, like most other French towns, dirty, dull and dilapitated, but it every where bears the impress of former greatness, and of a name in history. Around the city on all bands are lofty walls, bastions and embrazures, and within, besides other buildings of in: terest, are a cathedral, a palace and a prison, all which have so much the air of the strong-holds of the Popedom as it now ists, that in Avignon one feels as if we were already in the Ro.
states. The time-worn palace with its rock-sustained walls high reared before a single opening or break of any kind relieve. the dead wail--and that break which meets the eye at last, not a window to let in the cheerful light on the peaceful oceupant, but a spout hole for pouring down melted lead' on people below---the dungeon-like aspect of the chambers ---the narrow spiral stairs ---the stone mortices for. bolts and bars.---the peep-holes with their iron gratings in every door, and the low suspicions aspect of all the surrounding houses---every object in short points io some former day when a power reigned in Avignon whose trust
was in its authority, and whose leading fratures were cowardice and cruelty,--and such was the Popedum when Avignon was the seat of the Holy sce though not when there only.
But let us go to the Cathedral and let is walk in. Never mind the sacristan who presents himself as it he had a right io keep you out till you cmploy him. The door of a Cathedral ought to be always open ; and the valet de place whom you have with you from the Hotel kdows all that the sacristan knows, and will tell you more then is worth the listening 10. And here let me insin.
you need not care for the lombs of the Popes to which he will conduct you, not yet for the sculptures whose praises be will enlarge on. But the building itself is highly inieresting. Its various parts are monuments of all the most re. markable epochs in the history of France. The portico was once a part of a temple of Hercules when Avignon bore the name Arenio, and was a heathen town of the ancient Romans. Much of the interior dates from Constantine. A beautiful balustrade which surrounds the nave above the arches was built by Louis le grand while the most modern parts ove their existence to the epoch of the charte and of Lorris Phillippe. And certainly it is most interesting 10 see a single building wbich presents to the eye at one moment, works done in epochs so distant from each other and all so important. How easy would it be to write pages on such a theme! But let us not dwell on it, since all thai is proposed in these pages are a few travelling sketches of the lightest kind, Instead of remaining among the nation-mauments below, therefore, let as ascend the stair of the tower and get upon the top and look around. And such is the amphitheatre, that in a moment all the painful feelings which the sight of the prison---like palace awoke, all the solemn feelings wbich the Cathedral inspired, in a word every other recollection and feeling will vanish before the loveliness which reposes in the landscape before you. Around Avignon lies the most beautiful panorama which fancy can picture. A plain so extensive that it is bounded by the wooded mountains which lie around just where the dimness of disfance makes the eye long for mountains and forests 10 rest upon, and here and there stretching in among the mountains and vanishing in their embraces—the serpentinę waters of two noble rivers, the Rhune and the Durance glittering through i---several fine bridgesbeautiful meadows covered with the richest verdure and regularly planted with mulberry trees and bills of varied forms terraced with ţineyards and topped by ruined towers—such are the beautiful objects wbich fill the eye on all hands as it wanders around and looks down from the top of the Cathedral tower of Avignon, It is altogether a place and scene for the most pleasing poetic feeling-Nor is the poetry of the spectator hurt on this occasion by a valet de place as' is usual when your cicerone comes up and pointing with his finger 'towards the east, says earnestly Do you see that mountain wbose shoulder reşts upon the plain and the valley between it and the mountain beyond; and do you see a chasm on the side of the mountain whose base is dark and concealed ?"..-to all which being ansfered in the affirmațiye, he adds “there lies the fountain of Vauclause".--Nor is the emotion of the English traveller lessened even when he turns from the scene of Petrach's rime sparse in praise of Laura in life and death, and his still more admirable sestine, and looking to the utmost verge of the horizon observes in the distance, yet distinctly visible, the lofty summits of the snowy Alps.
But now let the traveller descend else the valet de-place if he touch on the city which lies beneath will point to spots where such deeds were perpetrated in the olden time as will dissipate all the charm of the panorania and make the blood run cold.
. let us, as fast as possible, get on board a steamer which touches at Civita Vecchia so as to make Rome, as we have made Paris, one of those resting places which the traveller requires if he is to travel instruciively as well as fast-At Marseilles a choice of boats may be had, English, French, Sardinian, Tuscan, Neapolitan. Bad is the best indeed compared with those which now ply from Falmouth 10 Alexandria ; but any of them is good enougb for an enterprising traveller. The French government boais bave had the chiet l'un buherio by parties coming overland; and till now, all things considered, they were the best. Not but that some of them are very disappointing, and in some states of the weather scarcely capable of going 'a-head at all; but they call in passing, not only at Malta, but at several ports in Italy and Greece also which is certainly a great recommendation.
It is to be regretted however that as matters stand there is no easy way of seeing Genoa. It is a beantifully situated and noble Italian lown; and for marble palaces and Vandykes, and a colossal statue (of Andria Duria) stariding up among the houses, it has no where its equal. Its churches are also magnificent; and one of them is curious for this, that over the galleries of which there are ten, all the commandments are emblazed except the second— The consequence ja that nothing is seen tò forbid those < graven images” which stand around, and that “ falling down and worshipping of them” in which (in the eyes of the simple observer, at least,) every worshipper appears to indulge–But what has become of the second ? Why by that “cunning" for which the church of Rome is so remarkable, the commandments were so arranged that the second fell behind the organ which occupies one of the galleries referred to. The steamer touchés at Leghorn; and by evening one inay if he pleases be at Florence, ascending at a killing rate (The Tuscan drive so furiously that a horše generally lasiš them only two or three years) the n.ost beautiful valley of the Arno with iis well cultivated fields, its vineyards, gardens, unbrageous trees, clean villages and cheerful cottages, meeting meanwhile many a noblelooking Tuscan whose aspect speaks of good spirits and good government. But better in the first instance, at least, ient with seeing what is to be seen at Tuscany around Leghorn, and coming on board ägain, after twelve hours more, land in the Roman states at Civita Vecchia, the port nearest to Rome. And here the scene is very different.
On nearing tlie Roman States at Civita had not the traveller already seen the barrenness and desolation which reign round Marseilles he would certainly be tempted to inser that the Roman states lay under some singular curse. Not a tree within the whole compass of the horizon. Thorns and thistles and stinted shrubs-stony hillsdeserted farm houses—and square buildings along the coast wbich, whether they were watch towers or places of retreat or what they were one cannot say--such are the elements of the scenery sound Civita Vecchia. And the town itself is altogether on keeping with this beggarly account.
Though the sea-port of Rome it is a poor place; remarkable for nothing but a fine 'harbour and a strong prison. The traveller soon finds to his cost however that it has also
a police office and a custom house. And woe be to him, if he have in his luggage any books or philosophical instruments or any of these things which used to be looked upon as savouring of the black art-In certain Romish universities in Spain they still teach for at least before the revolution they did teach) the Piolemaic system of astronomy, giving, out in dcfiance of all modern discoveries, and just as was done in the middle ages, that' the sun is the centre of the universe. And though there are now very enlightened professers in Rome to make the clergy knowing, yet at Civita Vecchia it seems as if the Roman Government were afraid of nothing so much as the entrance of light by any side window" Non posso passare la literatura, -Non