Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War
On 2 September 31 B.C.E., the heir of Julius Caesar defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra in a naval engagement at Actium. Despite the varied judgments this battle received in antiquity, common opinion held that Actium marked the start of a new era, a turning point in Roman history and, indeed, in Western civilization.
Actium and Augustus marks a turning point as well. Robert Alan Gurval's unusual approach is to examine contemporary views of the battle and its immediate political and social consequences. He starts with a consideration of the official celebration and public commemoration of the Actian victory and then moves on to other questions. What were the "Actian" monuments that Octavian erected on the battle site and later in Rome? What role did the Actian victory play in the political formation of the Principate and its public ideology? What was the response of contemporary poetry? Throughout, this volume concentrates on contemporary views of Actium and its results.
Written to include the general reader, Actium and Augustus presents a thoughtful examination of a complex period. All Greek and Latin quotations are translated, and extensive illustrations present graphic evidence about the issues Romans faced.
Robert Alan Gurval is Associate Professor of Classics, University of California, Los Angeles, and has been a recipient of the Rome Prize awarded by the American Academy in Rome.
The Imperious Show of the FullFortund Caesar Celebration in Rome and the Monuments of Victory
The Actian Arch
The Coinage of the Victor
Victory Cities and Actian Games
Tuus iam regnat Apollo Octavian Apollo and the Temple on the Palatine
The Temple of Apollo
The Defeat and Flight of the hostis
Final Anxiety Fear and the fluens nausea
Bellaque resque tui memorarem Caesaris Propertius and the Memorials of Actium
Romes Fear of Cleopatra and the Shame of Civil War
No Virgil No The Battle of Actium on the Shield of Aeneas
Alexandrian Poetics and Roman Politics Propertius 46
Posteri Negabitis Horace and Actium
Initial Joy of Victory and the mixtutn carmen
The Neptunius dux and the Recollection of Naulochus
The Actian Campaign and Battle
The Cry of Triumph and the nee parem ducem
Actian Actium Aeneas Aeneid allusion ancient Antony Apollo appearance arch argued association Augustan Augustus battle begins Caesar called celebration ceremonies civil claim Cleopatra closely coin coinage concludes connection contemporary critical death dedication defeat depicted discussion divine earlier early East Egyptian elegist elegy enemy epic epode erected established evidence fails fear figure final foreign formal gods Greek groups honor Horace Horace's identified interpretation issues Italy Julius later legend literary meaning military naval battle Nicopolis occasion Octavian Odes offers official once origins Palatine passage perhaps period phrase placed poem poet poet's political propaganda Propertius queen reader recent records refers represent RICē role Roman Rome scene scholars seems served shield statue success suggest symbol temple tion tradition triple triumph triumphal types Vergil verses victory woman