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not, at this distance of time, determine. With somewhat less impropriety, he endeavours to establish his system concerning the formation of mountains, the delugs, &c. on the history of those events, as !ccorded by the sacred writer.
In the preceding analysis, we have confined ourselves to matters of a general nature; as we cannot, within any reasonable compass, give even a short sketch only of the particulars of the Author's system of the formation of the carth, and its subsequent changes: as these matters are so very complicated, and so intimately connected with the Author's particular principles relative to the elements of bodies. For these the inquisitive seader must study the work itself; from which we fhall only select one particular object of the Author's investigation ; merely as being more easily detached from the rest.
This subject relates to the exuviæ of foreign animals, found in those parts of the earth where such animals do not, or cannot poffibly, now live. On this point, the Author maintains an opinion, not indeed with respect to all the circumstances attending the phenomenon, fimilar to that of a late ingenious inquirer on this subject + :-viz, that they were indigenous, or lived in the very lame places, nearly, where they are now found ; that these places had originally a different temperature, or state of atmosphere from the present; for that the air was then, in every part of the globe, equally temperate, and propitious to animal life.
To the changes in the earth's surface, or rather in the temperature of the air, effected by the universal deluge, the Author ascribes likewise the great change produced, with respect to the age of man, immediately after that event. Some have ascribed the longevity of the Antediluvians to their temperate diet, and sober manner of living. The Author is far from adopting this idea, or even from being willing to allow that long life is to be obtained by temperance.-" The holy scriptures,' says he, ' intimate preciy plainly, that the Antediluvians were very far from living by rule ;- [ Nil minus quam diætetice vixerunt') and that they were rather addicted, in the highest degree, to a life of pleasure and lasciviousness. We are taught by daily experience, that the most regular regimen of diet contributes very little to long life.'
+ See Mr. Whitehurst's Inquiry, &c. or Monthly Review, vol. 1x. January 1779, pag. 37•
Short Introduction to the History of the Writers on Mineralogy:
8vo. 6 s." fewed. Upsal, &c. 1779. Imported by T. Lowndes.
HE greater part of this useful publication was compiled,
and published about ten years ago, by the Author of the preceding performance, under the title of Lucubrationum Academicarum Specimen primum. He has changed the title of the work, because he thought proper to digest the materials intended for the promised continuation of it, into the form in which they appear in the performance, which is the subject of the preceding article.
The work itself is what the French would call a Catalogue Raisonnée, of the various systems of mineralogy, from the time of Aristotle down to the present; digested in chronological order. In this compilation, the Author not only gives the titles of the various publications respecting this science; but likewise a regular abstract of the different classifications of mi'neral substances, invented or adopted by each writer respectively; together with his own occasional obfervations on the particular method, or system, of each of them. His great reputation, as a systematical writer in this branch of knowledge, renders it unnecessary for us to enlarge on the utility of this mineralogical Compendium to those who are engaged in the study of follils. To those who are more conversant in that science, it must be agreeable to see here, as it were at one view, the gradual efforts made by human ingenuity, to clear up the immense chaos which the earth contains within its bosom ; by discriminating between the numerous subjects of the mineral kingdom, and reducing them into order.-In giving a few short specimens of this performance, we shall confine ourselves to the mineralogical writers of our own times.
“ § 58. Joh. Hill, Anglus. A General Natural History of Fossils. London. 1748.” After giving, as a specimen of this work, the Author's classification of earths and stones; he observes, that his method is that of Scheufchzer and Woodward, somewhat amended ; and then characterises it as · MIRIFICIS nominibus potius ONUSTAM quam ornatam.'
§ 68. Forsok til Mineralogie, &c. An Essay towards a System of Mineralogy; by the Noble Axel Frederic Cronstedt, Stockholm. 1758 *.
* This excellent work has been translated into English, and was publidhed by E. Mendes Da Colta, in 1770. See Monthly Review, vol. xlii. April 177o.
After giving this noble Writer on mineralogy, the titles of the most skilful mineralogist and metallurgift, and of an indefatigable observer and experimentalist; and after reciting the particulars of his method of classifying mineral substances, he thus characterises his work:
« On this performance we may pronounce the fame judgment that was passed formerly by Stahl, on the Physica subterranea of Becher: that it is “ opus fine pari.” The Author did not found his method on the reasonings of others; but on his own observations, deduced from experiments made with inde. fatigable labour: although he acknowledges, that the foundations of it, with respect to earths and ftones, were laid by Pott, in his Lithog. We cannot however deny, that this system is too sublime and obscure, and that it is not exempt from ble. mishes: but it is to be observed, that it was not formed for the use of those who attend too much to the external appearance or figure of follil bodies; but for the advantage of metallurgifts, who are too frequently impoled upon by their attention to these exterior characteristics. The Author himself acknowledged the imperfections of his work, and accordingly concealed his name; well knowing that, in this life, perfection is not attainable by man.'
In the last of the two sections, into which this work is divided, the Author treats of the proper method of forming systems of mineralogy. The systematical writers on mineralogy may, themselves, be distributed into three clafles. The first of these consists of those who have formed their systems merely on external appearances; such as the structure, figure, colour, pellucidity, and other sensible and obvious qualities of mineral substances. This has been called the artificial, and fill more properly, superficial, method. Others, with much more propriety attending to things rather than appearances, have foi med their method of claffing foflils, on the interior compofition, or true nature of mineral bodies, as discovered by chemistry. According to this method, which may jusly be called r.ctural, chalk or calcareous earth, and marble, notwithstanding their different appearance, come under the lame class, as being of the fame nature, and differing only with respect to external accidents or circumstances. In establishing this method, Cronstedt deserves all, and more than all, the praite which the Author has above bestowed upon him. The third and last method may be called mixed, and is that which has been adopted by the Author, in his own Systema Mineralogicum, printed in 1772 and 1775. This confifts in employing both the extrintical and intrinsical methods, where that can be done, in determining the characters of the genera and orders: or in determining the genera and orders by the intrinsic qualicies, or true nature, Rev. Feb. 1780.
of the subjects; and the species, by the extrinsical criteria.-On this subject the Reader will mcet with many judicious observations, made by a person well versed in the subject on which he treats.
For FEBRUARY, 1780.
AFFAIRS OF IRELAND. Art. 15. The Commercial Refraints of Ireland considered. In a
series of Letters to a noble Lord. Containing an Historical Account of the Afairs of that Kingdom, so far as they relate to this Subject. 8vo. 38. fewed. Longman. 170. UBJECTS of this nature may be surveyed in two different
lights, according to the medium through which they are viewed. The citizen of the world, who argues liberally from the general rights of all mankind, will totally reprobate the sovereign controul exercised by any one nation over another. The patriot, who, on comparison with the other, is a narrow-minded man, who confines his views to the welfare and prosperity of the inhabitants of a particular foil; and to which all the influence they can acquire over others, is to be rendered subservient; he will stretch the arm of power as far as it will extend, over all foreign dependencies, in every respcet likely to weaken the sovereignty claimed, or to interfere with the particular interests of the over-ruling flare.
The former is indeed a visionary, a man of mere speculation, to whom no goverment will or can listen; because, as the barriers of nature and human institucions have determined mankind to unite in distinct communities, separate and interfering in interests; all history will evince, that power can only be ftemmed by power. The latter, then, is the man of the world; whose principles only, being adapted to actual circumstances around us, can be carried into execution : and we find in national contentions, that after all argument is exhausted, power is the ultima ratio.
There are however different degrees of patriotism. It may sometimes centre in a single town, and wish to monopolize those advan. tages, which a mind somewhat more enlarged would willingly communicate to all within a particular province; a third till more liberal, may include all England in his benevolent intentions, but with a moit bitter antipathy to Scotland : a fourth may kindly take Scotland in, to comprehend the whole island. A fifth may incline, from convenience and good neighbourhood, to view Great Britain and Ireland with an equal eye, deem their mutual interests inseparable ; and think this natural union capable of withilanding the ambitious schemes of all our envious neighbours. How much farther, an experience of human nature, and a survey of national circumftances over the face of the globe, will justify an extension of political liberality, may be left as an exercise for the ingenuity of political eisure. In such diffusive schemes of legislative benevolence, however, a caution ought to be observed, against reasoning on the transactions of nations toward each other, from those of individuals ; 6
against risking security, by heedless bounty; and against resting confequences on gratitude for benefits conferred. No confideration ever withholding a people from asserting what they deem their particular intereft, the moment they perceive it, and feel themselves equal to the attempt. National gratitude, in this view, is political nonsense.
It is natural to take up the treatise now before us, in the character of the last gradation of patriotism ftated above; and to with all the distresses of Ireland removed, not because the inhabitants are men like ourselves, for so are our most inveterate enemies; but for the best reason in the world, because Ireland is a contiguous member of the fame body politic; her proximity of situation dicating confiderations on both sides, that could not take place in equal degrees, were the island a thousand leagues removed from that of Britain. The intelligent Author, who writes from Dublin, gives a clear historical detail of the commercial circumstances of Ireland, in an easy epistolary style; from which it appears, that the present diftrefies of that country originated with the prohibition of exporting woollen manufactures, which was imposed toward the latter end of the reign of William III. To check the natural trade of a country, is certainly the most direct mode of distrelling it; for as this writer observes, • a country will sooner recover from the miseries and devastation occasioned by war, invasion, rebellion, massacre, than from laws reftraining the commerce, discouraging the manufactures, fettering the industry, and above all, breaking the spirits of the people.'
It would be tedious to the generality of our readers, to enter into the dry detail of acts of parliament and commercial regulations and calculations ; in the present train of things, the conclusion of this series of letters may fuffice to convey an idea of the general subject.
• In extraordinary cases, where the facts are stronger than the voice of the pleader, it is not unusual to allow the client to speak for hima self. Will you, my lord, one of the leading advocates for Ireland, allow her to address her elder sister, and to itate her own case; not in the strains of passion or resentment, nor in the tone of remonfrance, but with a modeft enumeration of unexaggerated facts in pathetic fimplicity; she will tell her, with a countenance full of affeation and tenderness, “ I have received from you invaluable gifts, the law of * common right, your great charter, and the fundamentals of your conftitution. The temple of liberty in your country, has been frequently fortified, improved and embellished; mine erected many centuries since the perfect model of your own ; you will not suffer me to strengthen, secure, or repair; firm and well cemented as it je, it muft moulder under the hand of Time for want of that attention, which is due to the venerable fabric t. We are connected by the strongest ties of natural affection, common security, and a long in terchange of the kindeft offices on both sides. But for more than a
* The common law of England.
+ Heads of bills for palling into a law the habeas corpus act, and that for making the tenure of judges during good behaviour, have repeatedly passed the Irinh house of commons, but were not returned.