« PreviousContinue »
meant to convey the idea of its being of a dilute or aqueous confiftence. The cause here may be different; but the effect, as far as dircoverable by experiment, will certainly be the fame; dilution and attenuation being qualities not diftinguishable, as we imagine, by common feafible telts." Monthly Review, November, p. 341.
From several parts of Mr. Hewson's Experimental Inquiry it appears, that by the term coagulable lymph, Mr. Hewlon meant, that part of the blood which gives solidity to the crasamentum, and retains a folid form when separated from the forum and red globules. As p. 6. “The craffamentum confits of two parts, of which one gives it folidity, and is termed the coagulable lymph; and of another, which gives the red colour to the blood, and is called the red globules. These two parts can be separated by washing the craffamentum in water, the red particles diffolving in the water, whilft the coagulable lymph remains folid." And again, p. 106. “ We sometimes fee almoft the whole coagulable lymph collected at the top, forming a firm trust, which being free from the serum, as well as from the globules, contracts the farface into a hollow form :" though fométimes 6. there is not time for its being separated from the serum, of which it therefore contains a confiderable quantity, and is of courfe more spongy and cellular." --- In this lait lencence, the coagulable lymph is as clearly distinguished from the ferom which it contains in forming the white crult; as in the former it is distinguifhed from the red globules, with which it drices to form the craifamentum. I have followed Mr. Hewson in using the term in this friet and proper fenfe, though book of us have Tometimes used it in a moic lax way, for the white cruit it felf found upon the crafsamen cum..
By the term atlenuation, Mr. Hiewfon means to express the approach of a fubitance towards the itate of perfect fluidity by an alter. ation made in the fubftance iifelf; by dilation, the approach towards perfect fluiditvy by the addition of some other fubitance of greater tequity. When Mr. Hewson afferts, that the coagulable lymph is attenuared by initam marion, he does not mean to say, that inflammation eaules che lymph to be of a more dilute or aqueous confiltence than usual, by the addition of serum, or any o:her fuid of greater tenuity than itself* ; for he expreíly says, that “ the whole mass of blood feems to be thinner than the feruin alone; or, thao the coagulable lymph seems to be fo much attenuated in these cases, as even to dilate the serum." P. 556 .Bus his meaning plainly is, that inflammation increases the tenuity of the lymph, while circolating in the vefsels, by altering its properties, and ihat this tenuity remains for fome time after the blood is let out of the vessels, previously to its coagulation. # " For as a subtle spider closely fitting
* On the contrary, Mr. Hexron declares his opinion to be, that the more atree mated the coagulable lymph is, the less dríule is its consistence after coagulation. " The fize is fome imes very firm, and at ocher times spongy and cellular ; theie
differences in its denfity are, I suspect, in proportion to the degree of attenuatioa and Telened difpontion of the blood to coagulate; fos--be more ibe lymph is attenuaied, and the flower it cougulate', the more will the film be able to separate it from the ted globules and the ferum : thence perhaps it is, thaiwe sometimes see the whole coagulable lymph colieced at the top, forming a firm cruft, &c. But when the bloo : has its diiposition to coagulate less diminished-then-the lymph-contains a considerable quantity of feruin, and is of course more spongy aud celular." P. 105, 106.
It is certain likewise, that Mr. Hewlon did not think that the coagulable lymph was rendered thin, in its fate, by the admixture of serumi; because he expressly fays, that the coagulable lymph, when attenuated, diluted the serum. P. 556
The force of Mr. Hewson's arguments, which are drawn from the properties of the fluid observed upon the surface of blond, whea a white cruit is about to be formed, depends entirely upon the fup. position, that this fuid is coagulable lymph. My experiments have, therefore, in the plaincit manner thewn these arguments to be inconclusive, by thewing that the Huid is not coagulable lymph; but that fometimes 146, and sometimes near ts of it are something else, viz. ferum. Indeed, it is needless to attend to any arguments, which are designed to prove that this fluid is chinner than serum, as Mr. Hewson asserts ; lince the testimony of the fenfes will soon convince any one of the contrary, who will give himself the trouble of examining it.
Your next paragraph relates to an inconsistency into which you fuppose I have fallen by afferting, that the blood may, at the same time, have an increased proportion of coagulable lymph and serum. “ How these two opposite principles in the blood (one giving it density, and the other tenuity) can both be augmented at the same time, and from the same cause, we own ourselves at a loss to conceive.” Review, p. 342.
I have no where faid, that the coagulable lymph and serum are increased by the Jame causı; on the contrary, I have expressly attributed their increase to different causes, as in the following passages: • That the proportion of coagulable lymph is increased by inflammation, will be allowed by all;' &c. Obs. on the Blood, p. 22. . We need not wonder, that the watery liquors, which are drunk plentifully in these disorders, should thin the blood.' 15. p. 28.
Neither have I faid that it (viz. the same thing) is at the fame time thicker and thinner. But I have said, that the proportion of coagulable lymph and serum are sometimes increased at the same time; and I cannot see the dificulty, either of conceiving the posfibility, or allowing the reality of this fact. Whenever we fee che craffamentom of a very firm texture, or covered with a strong buffy coat, and throwing off a great quantity of ferum, (which is the case in violent inflammatory disorders after repeated bleeding) then we fee the proportion of lymph and ferum increased at the same time. And whenever this happens, the whole mass of blood will look thia as it flows from the vein; though the craffamentum, by having more than its, usual proportion of coagulable lymph, will be of an increased tenacity,
The last part of your criticism, which I fall beg leave to take notice of, would have been obviated by comparing Mr. Hewson's expreflors with mine, in our different accounts of the experiment made on the blood of slaughtered theep. You would not, I think, have imagined, that our difference might arise in part, from the ambiguous use of a term. “ One cause of fallacy, indeed, we discern, in the different idea annexed to the term coagulation. Mr. Hey ob. serves, that the latt blood was more viscid as it Howed, though it was the longeit in coagulating completely. Now vifcidity differs only in
degree from coagulation, and therefore this might appear to Mr. Hewson as a very speedy, though incomplete coagulation.” Review, p. 342. The following comparison of our defcriptions of the latt itage of the experiment will set this matter in its true light: Mr. Hewson says,
My account runs thus, 1. “ The blood-which flow- 1. " That blood which flowed ed when the animal became very last appeared the most viscid; or, weak, was quite fiuid as it came 1-Juffered a partial coagulation as from the vessels. Exp. In. 70. it flowed. Obf. p. 28.
2. “ Yet had bardly been re- 2. “ Yet was the latest in coceived into the cup before it con- agulating completely, and had the gealed-And-coagulated in an in- lofteit craffamentum.” Ib. fant after it once began.". Ib. 71.
So that, whatever was the cause, “ the results" of our experiment, as you observe, were dire&tly contrary to each other.
The design of my little essay has led me to take notice of the opi. nions of several authors whom I respect ; ibat I have aimed at doing this with such candour as I with to experience from others, From some excellent writings, and a short personal acquaintance, I judged Mr. Hewson to be a person of great ingenuity and industry and I fincerely join with you in thinking, that experimental philosophy fuftained a great loss by his death.
Before I conclude this lecter, permit me to offer one query for your confideration, Whether it does not tend to cast obscurity on the theory of szy blood, to speak of a change in the nature of the coagulable lymph, as a thing diftin&t from a change in its quantity ? For if the proper definition of coagulable lymph be, that whicb gives tenacity to the crafamentum, and retains a solid form, when separated. from ihe otber conftituent parts of ihe blood; it plainly follows, that, when there is no tenacity in the craffamentum, nor any thing in the blood that retains a solid form after the separation of the serum and ! red globules, there is then no coagulable lymph. It is furely very pophilosophical to say, that the coagulable" lymph, in such a case, remains undiminished, bar has changed its properties ; for the idea we have of this substance is, that of something exhibiting these properties. I am, Gentlemen, your obedient humble servant, Leeds, Jan. 27, 1780.
WILLIAM HEY. The receipt of a letter signed Juftus is acknowledged ; the Writer has our thanks for his hints; but we have no thoughts, at present, of printing a General Index to our monthly collections : fee the last page of our Review for February.. If any gentleman, or bookseller, chuses to risk a publication of that kind, we shall be facfrom oppofing the design; and any affiftance that we can lend toward carrying it into execution, may be depended on,-provided the plan, be such as we can approve.
+++ A. Z. recommends to our notice a publication entitled, The Reftitution of all Things, by J. White. As we have not seen this picce advertised, we are at a loss where to enquire for a copy of it,
For A PRIL, 1780.
ART. I. Conclufion of our Review of the new Edition of Shakspeari,
by Steevens, &c. See Review for January. E now fit down to fulfil our engagement to the Public
by presenting them with such extracts from the annotations on Shakspeare, as, we presume, cannot fail of proving satisfactory to the admirers of that illustrious Bard.
In the first Scene, Act II. of the Tempeft, Prospero says to Ferdinand,
so for I
“ Have given you a third of my own life.” Mr. Theobald was dissatisfied with the reading, and altered the text, by subftituting thread for third. Dr. Johnson restored the old reading, and apprehends that Prospero, by calling his daughter Miranda “ a third of his own life,” alludes to fome logical distinction of causes, making her the final cause. · Though this conjecture (fays Mr. Hawkins) be very ingenious, I cannot think the poet had any such idea in his mind, The word thread was formerly spelt third, as appears from the following passage in the comedy of Mucidorus (1619) :
Long maist thou live, and when the fifters shall decree “ To cut in twain the twisted third of life
“ Then let him die,” &c. Mr. Tollet adopts Mr. Theobald's emendation, and observes, that Prospero confiders himself as the stock or parent-tree, and his daughter as a fibre or portion of himself, and for whose benefit he himself lives. In this sense the word is used in Mark. ham's English Husbandman (1635) « Every branch and third of the root," &c. Mr. Steevens confirms Mr. Hawkins's obfervation concerning the ancient method of spelling the word thread, by a curious quotation from an old poem, entitled, Lins gua, published ir 607: VOL, LXII.
“ Io center of her web that spreadeth round,
“ She feels it instantly." • The following quotation, however (continues Mr. Steevens), fhould seem to place the meaning beyond all dispute. In Acolastus, a comedy (1529), is this paffage :-“ One of worldly , shame's children, of his countenance, and THREDE of his body.
Our ingenious Editor hath well illustrated a passage in the Two Gentlemen of Verona, by a similar expreßion in a contemporary writer. Valentine says,
“ Disdain to root the summer swelling fower.". " I once thought (lays Mr. Steevens) that the poet had written fummer-smelling fower : but the epithet which stands in the text I have fince met with in the translation of Lucan by Sir Arthur Gorges (1614), B.VIII, P. 554.
no Roman chieftaine should “ Come near to Nyles Pelasian mould
“ But thun that sommer-fwelling shore." • The original is—ripafque æfiate tumentes, l. 829. May likewise renders it “ summer-swelled banks.”—The summer-swelling flower, is the flower which (wells in summer till it expands itfelf into bloom.'
The implacable hatred that Shakspeare bore to Sir Thomas Lucy, the gentleman who prosecuted him for stealing deer out of his park at Charlcott in Warwickshire, hath been frequently taken notice of. His commentators are agreed in fupposing that the poet hath burlesqued the Knight in the character of Justice Shallow, in the Merry Wives of Windsor. He hath given the same arms to both : and indulged himself in a vein of low humour on the fimilitude of the found between luce and loufe. [Vid. the first Scene.] • Mr. William Oldys (Norroy King at Arms, and well known from the share he had in compiling the Biographia Britannica) among the collections which he left for a Life of Shakspeare, observes that there was a very aged gentleman living in the neighbourhood of Stratford (where he died fifty years fince) who had not only heard from several old people in that town, of Shakspeare's transgreffion; but could remember the first stanza of that bitter ballad, which epeating to one of his acquaintance, he preserved it in writing; and here it is, neither better nor worse, but faithfully transcribed from the copy which his relation very courteously comniunicated to me :
* Pope in his Essay on Man defcribes the exquisite delicacy of the fense of feeling in the Spider in a manner exactly fimilar to that of she old poet.
66 A par