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infert fome observations put in the mouth of Sir Robert Walpole.
• England is a popular government, and the honour of the nation. is to be gratified cven in turning out a Minister, when they are taught so loudly to aik for it. It was foretold me by some of my friends, before the last general election, that I should lose, in the course of a few sestions, my usual majorities. Even though my Marter should be willing to ftipulate to prolong my political existence to the next Parliament, yet the malevolence of party would pursue me, and would overtake me, in the long run. I mean, by the appearance of a voluntary resignation, to prevent the disgrace of being turned out, in consequence of a rude address to the Throne. The King's service must not be obstructed. I, who had the honour to make up a difference between the present King and his father, will pot be the cause of a breach between the Prince and my Royal Maf. ter, I have been permitted to take the lead in the affairs of Great Britain for twenty years. Let me see who will have such good forgune, and land his ground so long, without incurring more of the public hatred or contempt. I was not kept down by the furious Sunderland. I have been able to keep out the cankered Boling broke from his feat in Parliament and the Council. He is now consulted as the oracle of the Party, and his tongue and pen are venomously employed against me. if I have loved power, I have not injured my country whilt in possession of it. I have not offended againit any known law of the land. I have lulled the nation into tranquillity, and enlarged its commerce. I Itaved off the Merchant's war as long as I could. The oratory of Cap:ain Jenkins, at our bar, bore down like a torrent all minilerial objections to hoftilities against Spain. When the nation was resolved, I gave into warlike measures, and I leave my antagonists to get out as well as they can. I hope, hercafter, when the popular madness has subsided, that your moderation and capacity will raise you to the highest employments. If my recommendation at this juncture can have weight, it should be, to place Lord Wilmington, who is not considered as a party man, at the head of the Treasury when I am withdrawn.'
• Corruption is a frightful word; yet, under the less profligate one of influence, you will be obliged to practise it. There is no carrying on government without it. To expect to bring over to unanimity of opinion a whole House of Commons, and to carry an important questiou by the dint of reason alone, would be folly in the extreme. But if the influence of money Mould cease, I should dread as much as my friend Sherlock would do, to see an independent House of Commons, as an independent King, or an independent House of Lords. I have been called the Father of Corruption ; bus I have done no more than my predecessors in my ftation have been obliged to do. When prerogative ended, influence in Parliament began, and became a necessary engine of every Administration. I have converted many a bigotted Jacobite into a moderate man; and have really checked the forwardness of some, who came into my measures with so much pliability, that it has made even a Walpole blush. I have found it necessary to consult the pulse of many a wavering senator ; and I conclude, from my extensive experience, that almost every man has his price. Sir John Barnard wants popularity; and that is a reward no English Minister has to spare. When 1 ob served any one blazing like a meteor into glaring observation, and Jikely to make a figure against me or my Master, I have thought him the Cæsar against whom Cato would have allowed me to bribe. Whatever may be laid to my charge, of profufion or inadvertency, I have not heard that a fingle Member, who has voted with me, has complained he has voted againft his conscience. When the Revolution made the people less afraid of their sovereigns, the milder management of men, through their passions and their interests, and even their amusements, has taken place. The gratifications of the Court are become necessary to win gentlemen to attend, even to make a House, and to act in their legislative capacities. I thall carry with me the consolatory reflection, that I have kept within bounds the malignity of Whig and Tory; that I have faved the nation from the extravagance of war; that I have not rendered my fovereign unpopular; that I have countermined the views of the Pretender ; and that I have, at the right time, formed an intention of giving up my.'' places, like a good citizen, to prevent any possible convallion in the State. Consider me no longer as a Member of the Lower House. I fhall be safe, as a Lord, among the Lords. Argyle, Carteret, and Chesterfield know better than to become Tribunes of the People. Their ardour for a continental war will make Hanover more odious than I have done, and themselves more ungracious. I wilh they may not make its Elector so at last.'
We are to consider that the Author is here speaking not his own, but Sir Robert's sentiments; and indeed there is no reason to accuse this work of intentional partiality to any political party among us. The Author is evidently a man of sense and moderation, who has acquired such a degree of historical knowledge as is commonly attended with a gentle scepticism as to fpeculative principles of government. In some passages, however, he speaks of the undue influence of the Crown with too little indignation; and his perfect acquaintance, obtained by habitual familiarity, with the most elaborate English histories, which are little better than apologies for the prerogative, has perhaps given a flight bias, unperceived by himself, to a few of his po. litical tenets,
In the course of the work, the Author alludes to various interesting anecdotes scattered in the writings of Clarendon, White lock, D'Ewes, and other careful collectors of secret history; but as many of these are but little known, we with, for the lake of the Reader, that he had been lels sparing of his notes, when ther illustrations or authorities.
ART. VIII. A Treatise on Watering Meadows. Wherein are fewn
fome of the many Advantages arising from that Mode of Practice, particularly on coarse, boggy, or barren Lands. With four Copper-plates. 8vo. 2 s. 6d.
2 s. 6d. Printed for the Author, and sold by Almon. 1780.
HE practice of making water-meadows, one of the most
beneficial and lasting improvements, where the situation of the ground will admit of it, that can possibly be adopted, is at present chiefly confined to the West of England. Or late years, indeed, it has been extended, in some few instances, to other parts of the kingdom ; particularly to Halifax in Yorkthire, where land, that in its uncultivated state was of very trifling value, has been improved by this method so as to fetch a higher rent than any other grounds in that neighbourhood, It is much to be lamented that a practice, replete with so many advantages, should not be more general. There are few diftricts in the kingdom that might not in some degree or other be benefited by it. One circumstance, which possibly may have retarded its progress, has been the want of some intelligent guide to direct the process, and to explain the principles upon which the necessary works are to be constructed. This excuse, however, can now no longer be pleaded. Whatever information may be necessary in this business, seems to be amply fupplied in the work before us. The Author, Mr. George Borwell, appears to be a sensible understanding man, who writes, which cannot be said of all oui de re rufticâ authors, about wbat he really is acquainted with. Whoever has land capable of being converted into water-meadows, though it were but a fingle acre, will do well to read the present treatise. That our Readers may know what lands will admit of the improvement here recommended, we shall give them an extract from that part of the work which treats of lands capable of being watered.
! All lands, which lie low and near the banks of rivulets, brooks and springs, are capable of being watered, wherever the water is al. ready higher than the lands, and kept within its course by the banks. If the rivulet, &c, have a very quick descent, the improvement by watering will be very great, and the expentes small, for the greater the descent, the quicker the improvement. In all level lands the water runs flowly, which in general is the case also in farge rivers ; therefore but little land can be flooded by them, in comparison of what may be by smaller ftreams. But whenever large rivers run rapidly, are capable of being controuled, and can be brought over the adjacent lands, the advantage is far greater than can be obtained from rivulets,
• The water in large rivers is generally the most fruitful, for more land floods falling into them, they are fatter, and consequently more enriching to the meadows; but in many parts of the kingdom, where
the great rivers are navigable, or have mills erected upon them, these
are capital objections to the perfect improvement of the contiguous lands. By small rivulets and springs usually the most laod may be watered, and certainly with the least expence.
The various forts of soils to be found near the banks of rivers, brooks, &c. may all be reduced under the three following heads :
First, A gravelly, or found, warm, firm, fandy soil, or, which often happens, a mixture of such, or indeed almost any soil that partakes of such qualities.
• These soils, when there happens to be a descent from the river, make an almost instantaneous improvement; the faster the water runs over these soils the better. “ Should there happen, says Blythe, to be a quantity of land that comes under this description, not one moment's hesitation hould be made about the success, for the advantage is the greatest that can be obtained by any mode of husbandry, with the least expence, and the greatest degree of certainty.'
Second, Boggy, miry, and rushy soils (which always are found by the banks of rivers, where the land lies pretty level) are certainly to be greatly improved ; perhaps equally so with the other already described, when the value of each in their unimproved tate is confidered ; for this sort of land is scarcely worth any thing in that ftate; but by being properly watered, may be made to produce a large quantity of hay that will winter, and greatly forward horned cattle; although in its uncultivated form, it would not maintain any kind of flock all the winter, and but very little in the summer months. It mult be observed, that to bring this sort of land into a proper ftate, much more expence and judgment is necessary, than in the former.
• Third, Strong, wet, cold, clay soils are the most difficult to be improved, as well from their fituation, which is mostly a dead level, as from their tenacity, which will not admit of draining, but with great expence, much care and attention, and even then, unless a Itrong body of water can be procured to throw over them, and that from a river, whose water is fruitful, little advantage will be reaped; but whenever those advantages can be had in the winter, and a warm spring succeeds, the crops of grass upon these lands are immense.
• Rivulets and brooks are the ftreams that can be used to the greatest advantage, because the expence of erecting wares across them, will not be great, neither are there any of those objections to which large rivers are liable; besides, if they run through a cultivated country, the land foods, occasioned by violent rains, bring a very large quantity of manure, such as chalk water, theeps dung, and the itraining of the arable fields, as well as the scourings of the roads and ditches, the runnings of the farm-yards, the drains and finks from the towns and villages; all of which are otherwile carried, by the rains, into the lelier, and from thence into the larger Atreams, and are totally loft to the farmer.'
After pointing out some very important advantages to be derived from water-meadows, such as increasing the quantity of winter-food, and consequently the quantity of manure for the
uses of the farm, &c. he takes notice of what we think the most important advantage of all, which is, the guarding against the danger of a dry summer, where the lands are lo situated, that they can be watered at any season.
• It is inconceivable, what twenty-four hours water properly conveyed over the lands will do, in such season ; a beautiful verdare will arise in a few days, where a parched, rafty soil could only be seen; and one acre will then be found to maintain more ftock chan ten would before. The peculiar benefit of such feed at such time, let those farmers estimate, who have experienced a dry summer with a large stock, and no meadows. A third advantage must not be passed over, as it may possibly ftimulate some farmers to attempt to water their coarse lands. Every person who has a breeding stock of ewes knows the difficulty of procuring proper food for the lambs in February, March and April, after the turnips are eaten, or when they have failed, and before the natural or artificial grasses are fit to take them. This difficulty is effectually remedied by the Water Meadows, which, when laid up in time, properly watered, and drained, will have a sufficient bite for the ewes and lambs by the end of February, and they may be kept in them with perfect safety, till the end of April; nothing makes the ewe thrive better than this spring grass, or produces more milk; this is called spring feeding the meadows. To ihese advantages another may be addressed to the gentleman, who wishes to improve his estate ; and whose benevolent
him to extend a charitable hand to the relief of the industrious poor, and not to the encouragement of idleness and vice; almost the whole of the expences in this mode of cultivation is the a&ual manual labour of a class of people, who have no genius to employ their bodily strength otherways, for their's and their families fupport; consequently viewed in this light, the expences can be com, paratively but small, the improvement great and durable.'
Art. IX. Elegy on Captain Cook. To which is added, an Ode to the Sun. By Miss Seward. 4to. 15. 6d. Dodsley. 1780. APTAIN COOK's fingular and unfortunate death has
been lamented, and indeed moft juftly, by every one who has regard either for personal merit, the enlargement of knowledge, or the general interests of humanity. No testimony of gratitude to bis memory, or veneration for his character, has been with-held by those who had power to do justice to either. His surviving family has been marked out by Royal munificence, and the celebration of his fame has been proposed as the subject of poetical contest at both universities.
The first, however, who has started in this poetic race is the ingenious Authoress of the Elegy before us—an Atalanta, if we may judge from her present career, that will not easily be overtaken.
While o'er the deep, in many a dreadfal form,