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against Papifts. Under this head, we meet with the following remarks: If we attend to the form of the oath to be now taken by the Papists, in the last Act of Parliament, we hall observe a very striking variation between that and the oath of fupremacy of Geo. I. Stat. II. Cap. 13. By that, every Proteftant, and all other perfons, are required, on their vath, to declare, that no foreign prince, person, prelaté, ftate, or potentate, hath, or ought to have, any: jurisdiction, power, superioritya, pre-eminence, or authority, ecclefiaftical or spiritual, within these realms. But in the last statute, to accommodate the Papifts, and to avoid entroaching on their obedience and submission to their spiritual Father, the words 'ecclefiaftical or Spiritual" are omitted, and the words temporal or civil” substituted ; by which it is plainly declared, that the legilature, conscious of the jurisdiction of the Pope over every Papist within this realm, and that the Papists, as "Tuch, could never conscientiously abjure the same; have designedl; changed those, material words, and thereby recognized, within these realms, the 'ecclefiaftical and spiritual jurisdiction of Be Pope, and all in äùthority under him. This circumstance seems to affect Dr. Ibbet fon möft strongly;' who having publicly avowed' his approbation of the plan, adopted by the members of the Protestant Affociation, expresses his doubts relating to the propriety of a Protestant's taking the oath of supremacy, in the forin in which it is at present administered. He seems to think, that the authority of the Roman pontiff in natiers of an ecclefie affical and spiritual nature is, at least, virtually acknowledged by the legislature, from the omision of the words [ /piritual and eco Etefiaftical] in the oath that hath been framed to accommodate the Papilts. We do not see ebe matter in the serious light in whicla it is viewed by the learned Archdeacon, A Protestant may juftly fwear, that no prince, power, Atate, &c. hath any authority in Great Britain. The Pope bath, in fact, no more power than he had before the late indulgence granted to the Papills took place. No authority hath been explicitly delegated to the fee of Rome: and all the claim it hath, exists only (as it did before) in the creed of the Papift. To a Protestant, it is a mere negation ; and can not in the least affect his conscience in the matter of the oath, which disavows the active, pofitive right and legal exiftence of the Pope's supremacy over the ecclefiaftical constitution of these lands.
The fourth section contains, Observations on the manner in which the late Act was obtained ; on the principal arguments in its favour) and on the fatal consequences which will most probably result from it."
The conclufion treats of the absolute necessity of an application to Parliament for redrefs; and the conftitutional mode of obtaining it.'
« Nothing (fays the Association) but a law to repeal and qualify the late Ad, can keep the Papists within the bounds of allegiance and decency.- Our conftitution hath marked out the mode of obtaining redress; and declares it to be the right of the subject to petition. Let petitions be circulated throughout the kingdom; let the clergy of the established church, and Protestant ministers of every denomination, and all who are zealous for the welfare and fafety of the Protestant religion, cordially unite, and strenuously exert themselves on this important occafion. Let petitions against the Popish bill be sent to Parliament, with numerous signatures from every county, city, and corporation, and from other relpectable bodies of people. Let our representatives be instructed by their constituents, to support these petitions in the house, and as the eve of a general election is ap. proaching, we have reason to hope that these instructions will be attended co. Should they be neglected, we foon shall have an opportunity of electing members more attentive to the voice of the people, and the preservation of the Proteftant intereft.We prefume, it would be better if the late Act of Parliament were totally repealed, and the laws against the Papists placed on their former footing; but if that cannot be obtained, a qualifying Act, with some restrictions, seems absolutely necessary. Thus the Papists would be curbed, but not crushed; they would not be perfecuted, nor could they persecute: the grand objects of this ASSOCIATION would be obtained ; the Protestant religion would be preserved; the British constitution would be secured, and the Hanoverian fucceffion eftablished, upon the firmest bafis.'
ART. Foberni Bergman, Chemia Professoris, &c. Opufcula Phyfica & Che
mica, &C.-Philosophical and Chemical Essays, collected and revised by the Author, with Additions. By Tobern Bergman, Profeffor of Chemistry, F. R. S. &c. Illustrated with Places, Vol. 1, Upfal, &č. 1779. 8vo. 7's. 6 d. fewed. London, imported by Lowndes, N this valuable publication, the philosophical world are pre
sented with a collection of excellent chemical eflays, on several curious and interesting subjects. Some of them have formerly been published separately, in the Swedish, French, or Latin languages. After having been revised by the Author; they are here collected into one volume ; which, we are assured, will be followed by several others.. We shall consider them in the order in which the Author has presented them : extracting such particulars as may be most acceptable to our philosophical Readers,
Differtation 1. On the Aerial Acid. This esfay contains an experimental investigation of Fixed Air, firft published in 1775, in one of the volumes of the Transaftions of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. One of the principal designs of the Author is to prove the acidity of fixed air; to which he gives the name of the Aerial Acid. Among the various proofs of this quality, exhibited by M. Bergman, it is rather remarkable that, though he observed its property of readily combining with alcaline Talts, rendering them milder, and cryftallizable (in which last case he erroneously considers them as fafurated with that acid); yet he seems not to have proceeded to a ftill more decisive proof of that quality, which had occurred to another inquirer into the fame subject *; who has shewn that folutions of alcaline salts may be completely neutralised by fixed air, or the mepbitic acid, and may even be rendered fubacid; in the very same manner as the neutral solutions of Glauber's salt, nitre, or sea salt, may be rendered acidulous, by a few additional drops of vitriolic, nitrous, or marine acid.
When the oleum tartari per deliquium 'is exposed to fixed air, the crystals which very soon appear, and which have been ob served by the Author, the Duc de Chaulnes, and others, are by no means neutral. The fact is, that the neutral mephitic falt is not equally soluble in water, as the mild alcali; lo chat, in their experiments, when the inside of a receiver wetted withi el. tartar. or a faturated folution of mild alcali, is exposed to fixed air, crystals are formed before the alcali can have ace quired a sufficient quantity of the mephitic acid to neutralise it; because there is not water enough to hold the falt, though yet only partially neutralised, in a state of solution. To render the alcaline solution, therefore, perfeitly neutral, or subacid; the fal. tartar. should be disolved in a larger quantity of water than will barely dissolve it.
In the paper aboye referred to, it has been fatisfactorily shewn, that the marks of acidity exhibited by fixed air are not to be ascribed to the vitriolic or any other acid, employed in the usal processes for procuring it;, as was supposed by some foreign philosophers. In the present dissertation, however, we meet with an observation, which, if not explained, might throw Tome doubt on the intrinsic acidity of fixed air, and which there, fore deserves some notice,
It is well known, that when a weak infufion of litmus has been made red, by being impregnated with fixed air, the rednels gradually disappears on exposing the liquor to the common
* See Experiments and Observations on fixed Air, &c. by Mm. Bewley, in Dr. Priekley's Socond Volume of Experiments on Air, pag. 337, &ç,
air. It has been alleged that this circumstancelis not peculiar to fixed air; for that the colour given to this infufion is equally fugitive, when the water has been weakly impregnated even with the mineral acids. The Author has detected the fallacy of this experiment, by observing that the prepared litmus usually contains alcaline mátter; that the mineral acid cemu bines with this last, and expels from it its fixed air, which enters the infufion. So that, in this case, it is not the diluted mineral açid which gives the liquor its redness, and which afterwards flies off, so as to cause the infusion to reaffume its blut colour ; but it is the fixed air expelled by it from the alcaline Substance that produces both these appearances: the mineral acid remaining combined with che alcali in the litmus ; and having no other concern in the appearances than dislodging the mephitic acid from the litmus, Suppose the alcali to require the quantity x of mineral acid before it is perfectly faturated; it is evident that the quantity of acid * may be added 10 times fuca
10 cessively, so as to produce as many fucceffive appearances of this fugitive redness : one portion more added will render the redness permanent.
Of the numerous combinations of fixed air (or rather of waa ter saturated with this acid) with various fubftances, which are here described by the Author, we shall mention only a few. He affirms that spirit of wine will absorb double its Bulk of this fuid ; and that the fame is nearly true of oil of turpentine; which, at first, absorbs it with great avidity. Nay, he affirms that a portion of oil of olives will abforb almoft an equal bulk of fixed air. The impregnated water diffolves zinc, and a semimetal which he calls Magnesiuim, as well as iron. It diffolves likewise a notable quantity of magnefia; stadth part, the Author says, of its weight. We have formerly diffolved nearly an ounce of magnesia, reduced to the face of a moft Pubtile powder, in three pints of water, which was supplied from time to time with fixed air
. The Tolution, when faturated, had a saline, earthý,' and, at the same time, a bitter tafte, like that of the fal cathart. amarus: from which it only differs with respect to the acid wherein the earth is diffolved. This preparation appears to us welt adapred to answer various medical intentions, where the design is to introduce a large quantity of fixed air into the fystem.
Truls #top: The Author, who appears to have been one of the firft who discovered the method of impregnating water with fixed air, and thereby imitating the Pyrmont, Spa, Seltzer, and other waters, speaks highly of the benefits he has derived from the use of the artificial Selézer water in particular, during cight years, in the cure of what he calls an hæmorrhoidal colic, to which he has Bicen periodically fübject. The 'Aux, from the hæmorrhoids, which has been Hopped, particularly, in the cold feason, has constantly been brought on by this regimen, after fix days perTeverance in it; and sometimes, even on the third 'or fourth day. He relates likewise a few out of many instances, which he could produce, of the good effects that have ensued from the fame regimen, in Sweden; where the process of'impregnating water with fixed-air, &c. is become familiar in families of all ranks: and he affirms, that the most obftinare intermittent fevers which raged throughout that whole kingdom, for some years paft, and which would not yield to the bark, have almost conItanily been removed by the artificial Seltzer water, or other finitar iin pregnations of water with fixed air.
D:Turtation II. On the Analysis of Waters. This valuable paper contains, within a tmall compass, a molt excellent fet of oblervations and rules for examining waters or 'for discovering, colle&ting, and ascertaining the nature of their various and Heterogeneous contents. Besides the usual methods, and those which have been fuggested by the numerous discoveries that have been very lately made in the chéinical branch of experimental philosophy; it contains many others peculiar, we believe, to the Author. Such, we apprehend, is his method of detecting the presence of sulphar, in certain waters of the foetid kind, by adding a small quantity of concentrated nitrous acid; by which the færid smell is corrected. and finally destroyed, and the fulphur is precipitated. We fall only mention another new and curious test, by which the presence of calcareous earth in water is detected.
This teft is the acid of lugar, discovered, we believe, : By, the Author, and of which we fhall have occafion to speak presently, If the smallest portion of calcareous earth, combined in any manner whatever, be contained, even in a very large quantity of water (Cantharo' * ), a small cryftal of this acid, no larger than the head of a pin, being dropped into it, will produce friæ and clouus; caused by a precipitate formed of the calcareous earth, combined with the faccharine acid, and which is in. foluble in water. Scarce any water, the Author 'observes, is perfe@ly free from calcareous earth. Even with respe&t to that which is reputed the purest, this test is so fenfible, that when the water has stood twenty-four hours after it has been dropped into it, it will present fome appearance, though perhaps à faint one, of this peculiar precipitate. A combination of the faccharine acid, with an alcaline falt, produces the same effe át, ftill more sensibly, in coursequence of a double'afiriity." No acid,
The Swedih Cambarus, as we are told in a nore, consists of eight quadrantes; each of which contains 12; cubic Swedish inches.