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alcaline, or earthy body whatever, is capable of decompound ing the compound thus formed of the faccharine acid, and calcarous earth. Differtations II], and IV. On the Waters at Upsal: and on the

Acidulous Waters in the Parish of Danemarks, These two articles, independent of the immediate or local purposes for which they were drawn up, furnish useful exemplifications and illustrations of the rules contained in the preceding differtation,

Differtation V. On Sea Water. Dr. Sparrman, who joined Dr. Forster in the last expedition to the South Seas, brought home with him, and gave to the Author for his examination, several glass bottles filled with sea water, drawn up from very great depths, in the latitude of the Canary INands. We shall not take any further notice of this Analysis, than just to observe, that the water was perfectly in odorous, and though not grateful to the taste, it did not excitę á nausea, like that which is taken from the surface of the sea. ,

M. Bergman accounts for this last circumstance, by observing, that the immense number of filbes who die in the sea, rise up to the surface, in consequence of the inflation attending putrefac. tion; so that the water, at great depths, is not contaminated by them. When there is a fcarcity of water, in a ship, he thinks much fresh water might be saved, by boiling the ship's victuals in an equal quantity of this purer sea water. Dissertation VI, On the Metbed of imitating the Cold medicated

Waters, By the cold medicated waters, the Author means those whose saline, metallic, or earthy ingredients, are held in solution by fixed air; such as those of Pyrmont, Spa, Seltzer, &c. After giving an exact analysis of the contents of four of the principal of these natural waters; he teaches the method of preparing each of them by art, or by fynthesis. From the late discoveries relative to this subject, no doubt can be entertained that art, in this one instance at least, is capable of excelling naturewhatever the mayor and burgesses of Spa or Pyrmont may allege to the contrary. In this, and the following Differtation, the Author appears in the light of a good patriot as well as chemift: exbibiting, in a notc, the sums paid by Sweden for the natural waters imported into that kingdom in 1373 and 1774; which may now be saved, by fubftituting the artificial waters in their place. We shall not dwell on this subject, but shall attend to the next differtation, which contains matrers lefs known. Differtation VII. On the Method of imitating the Hat medicated

Waters. It appears extremely singular to us, that the curious process described in this differtation, by which the warm or sulphureous waters, such as those of Aix-la-Chapelle, &c. are perfectly imitated, thould have been so long overlooked: at least, this is the first notice that we have received of it. It consists fimply in adding the vitriolic acid to bepar sulphuris, and impregnating water with the peculiar species of air that arises from this mixture; in the same manner as when water is impregnated with the fixed air, arising from the mixture of that or any other acid with chalk. This hepatic air t, as the Author calls it, is very readily absorbed by water ; to which it gives the smell, taste, and all the other sensible qualities of the sulphurcous waters, A Swedish cantharus of distilled water, will absorb about fixty cubic inches of this hepatic air ; and on dropping into it the nitrous acid, as we have mentioned under the Tecond differtation, it will appear, that a real sulphur is contained, in a state of perfect solution, in this water, to the quantity of eight grains. It does not appear that any other acid, except what the Author calls the Dephlogisticated Marine Acid, will produce this effect. When any particular sulphureous water is to be imitated, we scarce need to observe, that the saline, or other contents peculiar to it, are to be added to the artificial hepatic water. Instead of the liver of fulphur, the operator may use a mixture of three-parts of filings of iron, and two-parts of sulphur melted together I:


It may perhaps be thought that water thus prepared does not differ from that in which a portion of the bepar sulphuris has been dissolved: but to us it appears evidently to differ from it in this material circumstance; that in the folution of hepar sulphuris, the sulphur is held in folution by the water, through the means of the alcali combined with it: whereas, in M. Berg, man's process, it does not appear probable that the hepar sulphuris rises substantially, in the form of air; for, in that case, its presence in the hepatic water might be detected by means of the weakest of the acids (even the mephitic), which would precipitate the fulphur from it. Nor can it be supposed that any porn tion, or constituent part, of the alcali itself (except a part of its remaining fixed air) can come over. The water therefore must owe its impregnation to the fulphur, raised, in some peculiar manner, into the state of an elastic vapour; permanent, when the experiment is made in quickllver; but condensible in water, and rendered soluble in that fuld through the means of some unknown principle combined with it, and which the Author supposes to be the matter of heat, combined with it through the medium of pblogiston.

+ Part of this air, as we have found, is fixed air, proceeding from the fält of artar.

Io chis case, there appears to us, to be very little absorption: the bepatic air, or vapout, seeming to be dissolved, or suspended in inflammable air.


In our account of Dr. Priestley's laft volume of "Experiments, &. (M, R. 'June 1779, p. 414, &c.), we took notice of one of the ways, indicated by one of his experiments, by which the fulphur is produced that is found in the yaults and aqueducts at Hix la Chapelle. The present process not only clearly explains the manner in which these waters become impregnated with fulphúr; but likewife the cause of the appearance of the crude fulzhúr above mentioned. It appears, from the Author's expesimtienes, that air, as well as the nitrous acid, has the property of decompounding this water :-even that small quantity of atmaJoberical air, that is contained in common water, has this quaSity, in a sufficiently tensible degree, 'when the latter is employed in the proces, inftead of fresh distilled water, or water that has been lately boiled. When the natural fulphureous waters, cherefore, come in contact with the external air ; the latter, according to the Author, feszes the phlogistic principle which kept the fulphur diffolved in the water; and thus, in time, are formed those fulphureous crufts, which, as well as even the preJence of actual fulphur in thele waters; have been the subjects of To much controversy among the chemifts.

" Differtatioir VITI. On the Acid of Sugar, In this ingenious Differtation, M. Bergman communicates the discovery of a new acid the method of producing it; and its chemical properties and affinities with respect to various other fubftances. The process for procuring it is briefly this: To one ouhce of the finert sugar are added three ounces of the frongest fpirit of pirte, in a túbulated retort. After the molt phlogisti cated part of the nitrous 'acid has exhaled, a receiver is to be adapted to the heck of the resort, and the folution made!cô boil gendy, till it acquires a brown or chesnut-colour; when three more ounces of nitrous acid are to be added, and the lebullition is to be continued till the tinged and smoking acid has nearly disappeared. The liquor remaining in the retört is tow to be put into a broad vefsel; and, on cooling, quadrilateral prisma. tic crystals will be formed, which, after being dried on a bibu. lous paper, wilt weigh about a drachm and and is grains.

The remaining liquor, in which the crystals were formed, is to be treated in the same manner, with two búnces more of {pirit of nitre ; and will furnith half a drachm and i3 grains of fresh crystals. To the glutinous fluid, now remaining, two more ounces of nitrous acid are to be added in small portions, at different times; and the whole is to be evaporated to dryness: when a Caline mals is left, which, when dry, weighs about half a drachm. These different products mixed together are purified by repeated solution and cryftallisation.

The crystals thus procured are the acid of sugar ;-the last disco cred, and the dearest of the acids; for to produce one

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ourice of it (from three ounces of sugar) thirty ounces of Arong spirit of nitre muft bé employed., Sugar, however, is not the only substance from which it is to be procured. It may be extracted not only likewise from gum arabic, and even the most highly rectified spirit of wine.

M. Bergman relates, in detail, the various combinations of this new acid with faline, earthy, and metailic fubftances. From a combination of it with spirit of wine, he procured a kind of, ether; inferior, however, to the vitriolic and other æthers in inflammability. The fixity and strength of this acid are very. considerable, so that, as we have indeed already, hinted, it exo, pels even the vitriolic acid from Erfum and selenite. On being, exposed to heat in close velleis, the water of its crystallisation is firit partly expelled; and a great part of the falt is sublimed in a purer state : a very great quantity of air, or elastic vapour rising dering the distillation. From half an ounce of the crystals, near ioo cubic inches of air were produced'; half of which confisted of fixed air, capable of being absárbed by liine water : 'in the other portion, a candle burned, and with a blue Name.

Confidering the large quantity of spirit of nitre employed in, producing this acid; it might be suspected that it is only a modification of that acid; eipecially as the Author has not yet. been able to procure it by any other means; such as fimple diftillation, detonation, with nitre, digestion and decoction with the vitriolic, and depblogisticated marine acids, &c. It is certain, however, that it has properties not only different from, bur likewise contrary to, thole of the nitrous acid; which, in most cases, it expels from its bases. Besides, it is allowed that sugar, as an essential falt; contains an acid; though enveloped in, and combined with, various szponaceous, and phlogiftic, matters. M. Bergman's idea is, that the nitrous acid, in consequence of the peculiar avidity with which it combines with phlogiston, , breaks the union of these matters with the faccharine acid, and leaves the latter difengaged. Be this as it may, the discovery of 20 acid, differing in its qualities so much as this does from the nitrous and other acids, is certainly no small acquisition to the art of chemiftry.

We have excended this article to Tuch a length that,, at prema fent at least, we shall only obierve, that there renain three other differtations, which, like the former, exhibit many proofs of the chemical skill, genius, and industry of the Author. These ares Disfeci IX. On Alum, and its Preparation Diller. XJ On the Combinations of Antimony with Tartar, and the Tartareias Arid: and Diter. X1. On Magnesia. In a lace forcigni pablicacion, we have fren with pleasure a second volume of this colletion of Dif? fertations advertikel, as being thenin the press'; of which, when it appears, we thall not fail to give an account:



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For JANUARY, 1780.

Art. 12. Fails : addressed to the Landholders, Stockholders,

Merchants, Farmers, Manufacturers, Tradesmen, Proprietors of
every Description, and generally to all the Subjects of Great Bri.
tain and Ireland. Svo. 2 s. Jobnson, &c. 1780,
THIS, as the title imports, is not a pamphlet of SPECULATION,

but of BUSINESS,--bufiness of the most serious and important aspect, with regard to the political welfare of this community. Is bears reference to one of the greatest objects of government ;--the ceconomical application of the public revenue; for without coNOMY it is impossible for even the mightiest States and EMPIRES, any more than private families and individuals, to subfift, with any prospect of durability. As DISORDER is always followed by D.STRESS, so whereyer Waste and EMBEZZLEMENT prevail, POVERTY and RUIN are inseparably in their train : nor is it pollible for human policy to divide companions who, in the analterable nature of things, are eternally united.

The Faits here brought forward, to the general view, relate merely to the expenditure of the public money. Our Authors (for this tract is supposed to be the production of more than one hand, or one head) have avoided to take notice of the shameful abuses which prevail in the receipt of the revenue, and in the manner of accounting for it.' The waite and plunder, it is added, ' of the public money under these beads, are not of a less magnitude, or, of smaller importance, than the abuses in the expenditure. But they deserve a separate discussion, and thall have it ; if it shall appear that the iatelligence here communicated is welcome to the public, and ferves at all to rouse them to a sense of their wrongs, and to resolutions of obtaining juftice.

The representations here made, are profeffedly founded on the Duke of Richmond's and Lord Shelburne's celebrated motions in the House of Lords, Dec. 7th and 15th, afferting the prodigality and waste of the national treasure, and urging the indispensable neceffity of immediately applying the remedies proper for a disorder fo imminently dangerous to the body politic. The rectitude of those [three) motions is first confidered and evinced, by way of preliminary discourse ; and then the Authors proceed to state, in

Chap. II. The charges of the present war,-in order to demonftrate the proposition which stands at the head of the chapter, viz. that nothing can more forcibly prove the extreme necessity of the proposed reformation, than an exhibition of the expence already incurred by the war, even with the supposition that a peace had been settled at Christmas 1779. The accuracy of the estimates must be

The Dake well observed, that profufion is not vigour ; that true ceconomy, by retrenching all useless expençes, creates confidence in government, gives energy to its exertions, and provides the means for their continuance.


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