Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation
Written by a leading researcher in the field and one of its founders, Nanosystems is the first technical introduction to molecular nanotechnology - an emerging field that has sparked increasing interest and controversy. This groundbreaking book describes fundamental physical principles, components and devices, then examines applications including computers of unprecedented power and manufacturing systems able to build such products molecule by molecule. Nanosystems presents a comprehensive overview of how molecular manufacturing will make products by using nanoscale (billionths of a meter) mechanical and robotic technologies to guide the placement of molecules and atoms. Working with these fundamental building blocks of matter will enable designers to approach the limits of the possible: to build the smallest devices, the fastest computers, the strongest materials, and the highest quality products. By manipulating common molecules at high frequency, molecular manufacturing will make these products quickly, inexpensively, and on a large scale. Molecular manufacturing is the key to implementing molecular nanotechnologies, building systems to complex atomic specifications. This landmark work first presents the basic principles of physics and chemistry required to understand molecular machines. Then, Dr. Drexler describes computational models of molecules as mechanical systems, the effects of statistical mechanics, quantum uncertainty, damage mechanisms, and energy dissipation, and the fundamentals of mechanosynthesis - the use of mechanical devices to guide molecular reactions. Nanosystems then applies the analytical tools and concepts developed in the first section to the design ofnanomechanical components, devices, and systems. It describes nanomechanical gears, bearings, motors, sensors, logic gates, submicron 1000 MIPS computers (consuming 10(superscript -8) times as much power as comparable computers today), and systems able to join simple molecules to build complex products. The last section discusses how chemical, biochemical, and proximal probe technologies can be used to build complex molecular objects and how this capability can be used to implement molecular manufacturing. Bringing together physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering, and computer science, Nanosystems provides an indispensable introduction to the emerging field of molecular nanotechnology.
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Classical Magnitudes and Scaling Laws
Potential Energy Surfaces
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analysis applied approach approximation assembly assumed atoms barrier bearing blocks bond bound build calculations cause Chapter chemical chemistry classical complex components computational considered constraints corresponding density described developed devices diamond direction discussed displacement drive effects electronic energy dissipation engineering error estimated example Figure force frequency function further gears geometry given hence increase interactions interface length limit logic manufacturing mass materials mean measure mechanical moieties molecular molecules motion moving nanomechanical objects operations parameters permit physical position potential energy present pressure probability problems properties protein quantum quantum mechanical range rates reaction reactive reagent reduce region relatively resulting scale Section separation single sliding space specific speed stability steps stiffness structures substantial surface temperature thermal tion transition typical unit values vibrational volume yields