Culture, Self-Identity, and Work
Oxford University Press, Aug 12, 1993 - Business & Economics - 280 pages
A great deal of research has recently been completed on behavior and the organization of work, most of which has viewed it from an ethnocentric perspective. In this work, Erez and Earley show how this is insufficient to develop a global theory of work behavior--it necessitates the inclusion of a cultural perspective. Solidly grounding their work in the fields of psychology, management, and anthropology, the authors propose a new theoretical framework utilizing individual's self-concept as a means of linking cultural beliefs and social interaction to emergent work behavior. The book includes specific recommendations for structuring work environments and managerial processes to match cultural practices and enhance productivity in the workplace, making it an essential reference for scholars, students, and professionals.
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2 Cultural SelfRepresentation Theory
3 Cultural Frameworks
4 Individualism and Collectivism
5 Work Motivation
6 Culture Self and Communication
7 Group Dynamics
9 Negotiation and Bargaining
10 Summary and Conclusions
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actions allocation American approach argue aspects characteristics charismatic charismatic authority cognitive cognitive frames collective collectivistic cultures commitment communication concept concerning conflict consistent context cross-cultural cultural self-representation cultural values decision-making dimensions discussed Earley effective efficacy emphasis employees enhance environment Erez evaluated example factors focus follower's framework goals group members group membership Hofstede impact indi individual’s individualism and collectivism individualistic cultures influence ingroup interac interpersonal interpret Israeli Japan Japanese job enrichment kibbutz Kluckhohn leader and follower leadership managerial practices managerial techniques motivational techniques needs negotiation norms one’s organization organizational behavior organizational culture orientation outcomes outgroup participation parties patterns performance perspective power distance psychology quality circles refers reflect relationship result role rules scripts self-concept self-efficacy self-enhancement self-motives shared situational social social loafing society structure style subjective culture task theory tion Triandis uncertainty avoidance understanding United variables versus viduals whereas
Page 41 - Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (ie historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action.
Page 48 - A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of ''conduct or end-state of existence. A value system is an enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence along a continuum of relative importance.
Page 177 - The leader is characterized by a strong drive for responsibility and task completion, vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals, venturesomeness and originality in problem solving, drive to exercise initiative in social situations, self-confidence and sense of personal identity, willingness to accept consequences of decision and action, readiness to absorb interpersonal stress, willingness to tolerate frustration and delay, ability to influence other persons' behavior, and capacity to structure social...
Page 104 - It is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Page 41 - On a cultural level we view the organized set of rules or standards as such, abstracted, so to speak, from the actor who is committed to them by his own value-orientations and in whom they exist as need-dispositions to observe these rules. Thus a culture includes a set of standards. An individual's valueorientation is his commitment to these standards We shall speak of three modes of value-orientation, which parallel the modes of motivational-orientation.
Page 41 - Culture consists in patterned ways of thinking, feeling, and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional [ie, historically derived and selected] ideas and especially their attached values.
Page 104 - Individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family. Collectivism as its opposite pertains to societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive ingroups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
Page 74 - Man is not unless he is social; what he is depends on his social being, and what he makes of his social being is irrevocably bound to what he makes of...
Page 48 - has a value" is to say that he has an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally and socially preferable to alternative modes of conduct or end-states of existence.