The Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean: Structure, Dynamics and Applications

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 13, 2006 - Science - 574 pages
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Until the 1980s, a tacit agreement among many physical oceanographers was that nothing deserving attention could be found in the upper few meters of the ocean. The lack of adequete knowledge about the near-surface layer of the ocean was mainly due to the fact that the widely used oceanographic instruments (such as bathythermographs, CTDs, current meters, etc.) were practically useless in the upper few meters of the ocean. Interest in the ne- surface layer of the ocean rapidly increased along with the development of remote sensing techniques. The interpretation of ocean surface signals sensed from satellites demanded thorough knowledge of upper ocean processes and their connection to the ocean interior. Despite its accessibility to the investigator, the near-surface layer of the ocean is not a simple subject of experimental study. Random, sometimes huge, vertical motions of the ocean surface due to surface waves are a serious complication for collecting quality data close to the ocean surface. The supposedly minor problem of avoiding disturbances from ships’ wakes has frustrated several generations of oceanographers attempting to take reliable data from the upper few meters of the ocean. Important practical applications nevertheless demanded action, and as a result several pioneering works in the 1970s and 1980s laid the foundation for the new subject of oceanography – the near-surface layer of the ocean.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
12 Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics and Useful Approximations
4
122 Boundarylayer approximation
6
123 Low Rossby number approximation
8
13 Boundary Conditions
11
132 Bulkflux formulation
13
133 Longwave radiation
19
14 Solar Radiation
20
44 Large Diurnal Warming Events
257
442 Global distribution of large diurnal warming events
259
443 Physics of large diurnal warming events
263
452 Transition from radiativeconvective to wind mixing regime
273
453 Parameterizations for the diurnal SST range
276
46 Fine Structure of the NearSurface Layer in the Polar Seas
281
SPATIALLYVARYING AND COHERENT STRUCTURES
285
52 SelfOrganization in TwoDimensional Turbulence
287

142 Solar constant and insolation
21
143 Insolation under clear skies
23
144 Insolation under cloudy skies
24
145 Albedo of the sea surface
26
146 Attenuation of solar radiation in the ocean
30
15 Rain Forcing
34
152 Surface flux of freshwater due to rain
35
153 Volume source of freshwater due to rain
37
154 Raininduced heat flux
40
16 Surface Waves
41
162 Linear waves
44
163 Nonlinear waves
45
164 Wave breaking
47
165 Statistical description of surface waves
50
166 Kinetic energy flux to waves from wind
52
17 Planetary Boundary Layers
54
171 Ekman boundary layer
55
172 MoninOboukhov similarity theory
59
173 Surface mixed layer
62
174 Barrier layer
63
SEA SURFACE MICROLAYER
67
21 Phenomenology
70
212 Thermal sublayer cool skin
71
213 Diffusion sublayer
73
214 Sea surface microlayer ecosystem
74
215 Surfactants and surface films
75
22 Physics of Aqueous Molecular Sublayers
76
222 Microscale wave breaking
81
223 Wave breaking and whitecapping
82
224 Capillary wave effects
83
225 Chemical and photochemical reactions in the sea surface microlayer
85
227 Effects of surface films
86
23 Modeling Molecular Sublayers during Nighttime Conditions
88
232 Renewal model
91
233 Boundarylayer model
104
24 Effect of Penetrating Solar Radiation
106
242 Renewal time
111
244 Model calculations
113
245 Comparison with coolskin field data
116
25 Cool and Freshwater Skin of the Ocean during Rainfall
119
251 Effects of rain on the cool skin
121
252 Freshwater skin of the ocean
124
253 Surface renewals due to rain mixing
126
254 Buoyancy effects in molecular sublayer due to rain
130
255 Rain effects on sea surface roughness
131
256 Flux of kinetic energy carried by rain
134
257 Combined effect
136
258 Comparison with data
138
259 Discussion
140
NEARSURFACE TURBULENCE
143
31 FreeSurface Turbulent Boundary Layer
144
312 Wall layer analogy
145
313 Deviations from the wall layer analogy in a freesurface layer
147
314 Structure of the upper ocean turbulent boundary layer below breaking surface waves
149
32 Observation of NearSurface Turbulence
151
322 Wavefollowing versus fixed coordinate system
153
324 Dynamics of a freerising instrument in the nearsurface layer of the ocean
155
325 A nearsurface turbulence and microstructure sensor system
159
33 WaveEnhanced Turbulence
173
332 Craig and Banner 1994 model of waveenhanced turbulence
175
333 Benilov and Ly 2002 waveturbulent model
187
334 Concluding remarks on waveenhanced turbulence
195
34 Effects of Thermohaline Stratification
198
342 Asymptotic regimes
201
343 Boundary layer scaling of the velocity and dissipation rate profiles
203
352 Richardsonnumber type mixing parameterization
209
353 Rotation effects
215
354 Boundarylayer horizontal pressure gradients
216
FINE STRUCTURE AND MICROSTRUCTURE
219
41 NearSurface Thermohaline Structures
220
412 Examples of nearsurface structures associated with diurnal cycle
222
413 Wavelike disturbances in the diurnal thermocline
224
414 Rainformed mixed layer and halocline
226
415 Low salinity patches due to convective rains
227
416 Combined effect of diurnal and freshwater cycles on the upper ocean structure
231
422 Selfregulating state of the diurnal thermocline
238
423 Upper velocity limit for the diurnal jet
245
424 Upper velocity limit for the rainformed jet
246
53 Horizontal Mixing as a Nonlinear Diffusion Process
295
532 Nonlinear advectiondiffusion model
297
533 Buoyancy flux through the bottom of the mixed layer
298
534 Atmospheric buoyancy forcing
301
535 Equilibrium subrange
302
536 Numerical diagnostics of nonlinear diffusion equation
304
537 Relationship between vertical and horizontal mixing and atmospheric forcing conditions
308
538 Implications for horizontal mixing parameterization
309
54 Sharp Frontal Interfaces
312
541 Observations of sharp frontal interfaces in the western Pacific warm pool
314
542 Statistics of sharp frontal interfaces in the western Pacific warm pool
327
543 Internal waveshear flow interaction as a cause of repeating frontal interfaces
331
544 Interaction of sharp fronts with wind stress
335
545 Parameterization for crossfrontal exchange
344
546 Implications for the TS relationship in the mixed layer
345
547 Observations of sharp frontal interfaces in mid and high latitudes
346
552 Surfaceinternal waves resonant interactions
351
553 KelvinHelmholtz instability of a sheared stratified flow
352
56 RampLike Structures
354
561 Phenomenology of ramplike coherent structures
355
562 Observation of ramplike coherent structures with bow mounted sensors
356
563 Skewness of temperature derivative
359
564 Vertical profiles
362
565 Townsends hypothesis and ramplike structures
365
566 Vorticity waves in shear flows
368
57 Langmuir Circulations
370
572 Concepts and theories
374
573 Numerical models of Langmuir circulations
381
58 Convection
385
581 Phenomenology
386
582 Penetrative convection
390
59 Conclusions
393
HIGH WIND SPEED REGIME
395
61 Air Bubbles in the NearSurface Turbulent Boundary Layer
396
612 Bubble rise velocity
397
613 Bubble size distribution function
400
614 Bubble dispersion and diffusion
402
615 Buoyancy effects in bubble plumes
404
62 Sea Spray and Marine Aerosol Production
402
622 Mechanisms of sea spray production
403
623 Sea spray generation function
408
624 Primary aerosol number distributions
411
625 Marine aerosol generation function
413
63 AirSea Exchange During High Wind Speeds
416
632 Dynamics of suspension flow
421
633 Drag coefficient in very strong winds
427
APPLICATIONS
431
711 Remote sensing of surface winds
432
712 Sea surface temperature
433
713 Sea surface salinity
436
714 Surface ocean currents
438
715 Microwave imagery
439
72 Marine Optics
443
722 Influence of bubbles on optical scattering in the upper ocean
445
73 Marine Chemistry and Biology
448
74 Ocean Acoustics
451
741 Effects of stratification
452
742 Biological scattering layers
453
743 Effects of bubbles on sound propagation
455
744 Acoustic technique for measuring bubble size distributions
459
745 Ambient noise produced by bubbles
461
746 Ambient noise produced by rain
462
747 Passive acoustic monitoring of sea surface processes
465
75 AirSea Gas Exchange
472
752 Interfacial component
474
753 Bubblemediated component
477
754 Comparison with field data
478
755 Fine thermohaline structure and gas exchange
481
756 Remote sensing of gas exchange
487
76 Ocean and Climate Modeling
488
761 AirSea Fluxes
490
762 Subgrid Scale Mixing Parameterization
493
763 Interactions
494
Mathematical Notations
497
References
505
SUBJECT INDEX
553
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Page 526 - Structure and variability of Langmuir circulation during the Surface Waves Processes Program.
Page 529 - G., 1995, Retrieval of latent heat flux and longwave irradiance at the sea surface from SSM/I and AVHRR measurements.

About the author (2006)

Dr. Alexander Soloviev is an Associate Professor at the NOVA Southeastern University’s Oceanographic Center, Dania Beach, Florida. He also worked as a research scientist in the two leading research institutions of the former Soviet Academy of Sciences: P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology and A.M. Oboukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics.

Dr. Roger Lukas is a Professor in the Department of Oceanography at the University of Hawaii, in Honolulu, Hawaii. He was one of the two principal organizers of a major international air-sea interaction experiment (TOGA/COARE) conducted during 1992-94 in the western equatorial Pacific.