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651. From original temperament, from early education, from experience of personal inconvenience, and from various other causes scarcely known to ourselves, we all of us feel a stronger aversion to some offences than to others. One man is alarmed at public robbery, another takes fright at private stealing, a third startles at heresy as bordering upon infidelity, a fourth kindles at republicanism as teeming with treason; and each, if it were in his power, would wreak the utmost of his vengeance


the offender. But can it be right that the life, or the liberty, or the fortune of any human being should be dependent upon the greater or less degree of these moral idiosyncrasies ?-Dr Parr.

652. The oppression of an obscure individual gave birth to the famous Habeas Corpus Act of 31 Car. II., which is frequently considered as another Magna Charta of this kingdom.-Blackstone.

653. Men are governed by their habits, their prejudices, their hopes, or their fears. The two first are the most powerful, as being the earliest planted and deepest rooted; the two latter are purely speculative, and in a great measure dependent on the constitution, whether it is sanguine and bold, or cautious and timid. Much also will depend on their powers of reasoning and of observation, for which there is a very wide field, in observing all the bearings and dependencies, all the connexion between theory and practice, and how far they are compatible with each other, which is only to a certain degree; though all practice, to be good, must be founded on good theoretical principles, otherwise it cannot last long in a sound state, however it may accord with men's passions and interests, mutable as they are, in common with the events of the world.-W. Danby.

654. Necessity includes the idea of inevitable. Whereever it is so, it creates a law to which all positive laws, and all positive rights, must give way.—Letters of Junius.


No institutions of man, however solid in their fundamental principles, and however beneficial in their general tendencies, can be fenced against the incursions of contingent evil.-Dr Parr.

656. The laws of England provide, as effectually as any human laws can do, for the protection of the subject, in his reputation, as well as in his person and property.-Letters of Junius.


The advantages of wise institutions can be sought for only in an inflexible observance of them. - Chinese maxim.

658. Impunity and remissness for certain are the bane of a commonwealth ; but here the great art lies, to discern in what the law is to bid restraint and punishment, and in what things persuasion only is to work.John Milton.

659. One of the firmest supports of princes and statesmen, is the general distribution of moderate wealth, and the multiplication of domestic comforts among the members of the community.-W. B. Clulow.

660. The pure and impartial administration of justice is, perhaps, the firmest bond to secure a cheerful submission of the people, and to engage their affections to government.---Letters of Junius.

661. Through idleness, negligence, and too much


trust in fortune, not only men, but cities and kingdoms, have been utterly lost and destroyed. —


Liberty and property are precarious, unless the possessors have sense and spirit enough to defend them.—Letters of Junius.

663. Good sense is common sense well applied. The possession of it is shewn in the use.—W. Danby.

664. Sound policy is never at variance with substantial justice.-Dr Parr.

665. I question whether affairs were not conducted as wisely, at least as successfully, in times of antiquity, when auguries and oracles, events of an accidental nature, or the decisions of individual opinion, formed the rules of procedure, as in the present epoch, when political skill and deliberative counsel are the ostensible directors of government. Under any species of administration, it is seldom that both intellect and integrity have a predominating sway; and in the transactions of empires, success is often attained not so much by well-adjusted schemes, as by a happy concurrence of fortuitous incidents. With regard however to the ancient practice of divination, it is but fair to mention that those to whom it was chiefly intrusted, as among the Romans, the college of augurs, the haruspices, and the interpreters of the Sibylline prophecies, were usually persons more or less connected with the government or magistracy, and whose explanations therefore were in great measure determined by reasons. of state. The oracles in particular, it is well known, were often bribed by those who consulted them; so that both auguries and oracular responses were less influenced by chance, than might at first be supposed.-W.B. Clulow

666. There are three great maxims to be observed by those who hold public situations; viz. to be upright,-to be circumspect,—to be diligent. Those who know these three rules, know that by which they will ensure their own safety in office.--Chinese maxim.

667. Ignorance, indeed, so far as it may be resolved into natural inability, is, as to men at least, inculpable, and consequently not the object of scorn, but pity ; but in a governor, it cannot be without the conjunction of the highest impudence; for who bid such an one aspire to teach and to govern? A blind man sitting in the chimney-corner is pardonable enough, but sitting at the helm he is intolerable. If men will be ignorant and illiterate, let them be so in private, and to themselves, and not set their defects in a high place, to make them visible and conspicuous. If owls will not be hooted at, let them keep close within the tree, and not perch upon the upper boughs.-Dr South.

668. If governors were actuated by the same benevolent spirit which Christianity was meant to infuse into the minds of those whom they are appointed to govern, -if justice and


which mended to all the followers of our Blessed Redeemer, without regard to the infinitely varied and continually changing distinctions of climate, custom, laws, rank, and fortune, and the obligations to which are modified, but not suspended, by such distinctions, really pervaded the whole of a community, every corruption would be purified; every abuse would be corrected; every violence would be averted; and the blessings of public as well as private life would be more widely diffused, and more permanently secured. The honest magistrate,

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the wise legislator, the brave warrior, and the upright patriot, might, each in his own province, claim to himself the appellation of a good Christian. Dr Parr.

669. There is a gradual and silent extension of power, which in its effects is scarcely less pernicious than usurpation; when under specious pretexts of necessity, it has been permitted to answer other purposes than those for which it was primarily conferred ; and when, having imperceptibly obtained the force of immemorial usage, it represses all investigation into its comparative merits and demerits in the actual business of life. -Dr Parr.

670. The violation of the law should not be measured by the magnitude of the instance, but by the important consequences which flow from the principle. - Letters of Junius.

671. It is equally criminal in the governor, and the governed, to violate the laws.Chinese maxim.

672 Power will intoxicate the best hearts, as wine the strongest heads. No man is wise enough, nor good enough, to be trusted with unlimited power; for, whatever qualifications he may have evinced to entitle him to the possession of so dangerous a privilege, yet, when possessed, others can no longer answer for him, because he can no longer answer for himself. Lacon.

673. Wisdom and power are perfections only as they are in conjunction with justice and goodness. -Dr Whichcote.

674. There is a manifest marked distinction, which ill men with ill designs, or weak men incapable of

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