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"Quatuor dies ad minimum proxime præcedentes electionis diem omnes electores diligenter exquirant ab illis, quid in dialectica et mathematicis; in philosophia tam naturali quam morali; in linguarum cognitione, in historiis, poetis, et in toto genere humanioris literaturæ; in carminibus componendis; et quid etiam in cæteris bonis artibus possint.”
In the year 1702, and for many years before that time, the examinations for fellowships and scholarships had taken place in the college-chapel viva voce, before the master and the eight seniors who are the electors: Dr Bentley being of opinion that this oral test was not satisfactory in an inquiry so extensive and profound, ordered that the candidates should be examined by each of the electors at his own apartments, whereby an opportunity was given for the performance of written exercises, and time allowed to weigh and compare the respective merits of the young men with suitable deliberation. This method of separate examination, although liable to some considerable objections, which were felt both in Bentley's time and subsequently, continued to be the practice in Trinity College for ninety years.
The custom which had been introduced by Dr Bentley of private examinations for fellowships and scholarships, was attended with much inconvenience. The various examiners formed their opinion of the candidates' merits upon different data ; too much latitude was given to the private taste of individuals in the choice of subjects for examination; in some hands the inquiry might be slight and superficial, in others, altogether neglected: a door was thus open to abuse, and confidence was diminished in the justice of the decisions. Some instances having occurred (1786) of seniors taking a part in the elections, who had never examined the candidates, a strong memorial was presented to the seniority by ten of the junior fellows, remonstrating against a practice which was in opposition to the Statutes, and tended to destroy the objects of the foundation. The matter of this remonstrance was unexceptionable; but the governing part of the Society, offended at what could not be denied to be a censure of themselves, and regarding it as an act of insubordination on the part of their juniors, after an ineffectual attempt to induce some of the memorialists
to withdraw their names, pronounced an admonition, cauti ing them to behave with more deference to their superiors. T object of the memorial* was however immediately effected: t Master, Dr Hinchliffe, then Bishop of Peterborough, insist on each of the electors becoming bonâ fide an examiner; a upon his resignation about two years afterwards, Dr Post thwaite, who succeeded, instituted the present system of pub examination, in which the merits of the candidates are ful and fairly tried in the different branches of academic study.
All the fellows are obliged to enter into holy orders with seven years after their admission to the degree of Master Arts, or their fellowships become void. A fellowship is als vacated by marriage, but not by succession to any propert however great, or of whatever kind, except such as arises fro a benefice or ecclesiastical dignity of a certain annual valu otherwise the fellowships are tenable for life.
“After all expenses of maintaining the College, and carry ing out its various objects, have been discharged, the excess the receipts above expenditure remains to be divided at th discretion of the master and seniors, amongst the master, fel lows, chaplains, and librarian, in the following way :
£. To the master .
75 00 To the eight seniors (£25 each)
200 00 To the 9th and 10th fellows (£20 each) 40 00 To the next six fellows (£17 each) 102 00 To (say) 35 major fellows (£12. 10s. each) 437 10 0; To (say) 9 minor fellows
variable. 4 chaplains (£5 each) 70 00) 1 librarian
£924 10 0
“The effects which have flowed from this Memorial (Bishop Monk observes), have been so singularly beneficial to the College and the public, that the names of the ten memorialists deserve to be placed upon record: they were GEORGE WADDINGTON,
The two latter items vary slightly from year to year, because the number of major and minor fellows is variable. The sum of all the items (£924. 108.) is called the modulus for the year, and the money divided, in the above proportions, is always some multiple of the modulus. The multiple has, in the last ten years, varied from 16 to 20, the average being 1836; supposing it to be 18, the sum divided would be £16,641 ; the average sum really divided is £16,679. 198. It may be well to mention, that the average multiple of the modulus for the last thirty-five years is 173}; so that the average dividend for the last ten years is little greater than that for the last thirty-five years. The amount of realized fines has increased, but the expenses, created chiefly by demands for improvements on the College estates, and large contributions to charitable objects, have prevented any great increase in the divisible revenues of the College. The emoluments of a fellow consist of
1. His dividend, determined as above.
from his bill).
dent, receiving the old rent of a set of rooms. There are no bye-fellowships at Trinity College.”
The number of scholarships is 72, of which 40 were established by Henry VIII., 20 by Queen Mary, 2 by Thomas Allen, clerk, and the rest by subsequent benefactors. The Statutes of the College give the Master and Seniors the power of creating new scholarships on the same footing and with the same privileges as the others, "ex aliorum benefactorum fundatione.”
All the scholarships are perfectly open to the whole world, without any restriction or appropriation whatsoever, excepting two or three every year appropriated to Westminster School",
Queen Elizabeth's statutes had given no other advantage to the pupils from Westminster than a preference in the election to scholarships. But in the fifth
and Mr Newman's scholar, elected every fifth or sixth year. T scholars are elected, according to merit, in the second and thi year of residence, by the Master and Seniors out of the mu deserving candidates, after a general examination in classics al mathematics, which takes place in the Easter-week. Schola ships are tenable till M.A. but are vacated by marriage, electi to a fellowship, or by failure at the examination for the degr of Bachelor of Arts.
year of James I. the governors of the school had interest enough to obtain Lett Patent from the crown, enjoining the College to elect the Westminster scholars fellowships every year, in preference to all other candidates (provided they were r * exceptionable in learning or morals), and to make sure of their success, decreed th they should continue eligible two years after the degree of M.A. ; whereas othe are superannuated at that standing. It is obvious that the effect of such an ori : nance would have been shortly to throw all the fellowships, and all the preferme of the College, into the hands of Westminster men; and to destroy the objects this liberal establishment, by making it ever afterwards an appendage to anoth seminary of later foundation.
At that period it was neither usual nor safe to contest the validity of royal com mands: nevertheless, the Master and Fellows did resist a mandate, which could n have been received without the violation of their duty, and the subversion of ti Statutes which they were sworn to maintain. After some angry discussion betwee ja the college and the school, a composition was entered into, under the mediations Archbishop Bancroft; by which it was settled that three scholars should be take from Westminster every year, and that they should never be prejudiced by pri elections; and, on the other hand, that the king's Letters Patent should never b urged upon the College. By a subsequent letter of James I. which was accepted by the College, the above agreement is enforced, and the Westminster-elect have th privilege of seniority over the other scholars of their year. This arrangement ap pears to have continued for more than a century, without dispute or complaint: the connexion was mutually beneficial to the two institutions; and many of the most distinguished of the fellows were those chosen from the “Westminster scholars elect.' Bishop Atterbury, being dean, (1727), had lately found out the old Letters Patent of James I. and attempted to establish their validity, but without success, as these Letters Patent had never been received by the College. The lawyers also who were consulted, gave their opinion, that the establishment of the point of the dean and chapter in favour of the scholars was impracticable.
The College, in its reply to Lord Palmerston's letter, (1852) has expressed its desire to increase the number of open scholarships, by removing all restrictions on the selection of scholars. For this purpose the College has expressed its willingness to concert measures with the authorities of Westminster School for receiving from them every year three such exhibitioners, and to pay each of them £40 a year from the time of their commencing residence to that of taking the B.A. degree; and that these exhibitioners shall be equally eligible with other candidates to the open scholarships.
“The pecuniary advantages of a scholar are: £. $. d. Dining in hall free of expence (say for 30 weeks) 17 0 0 Three shillings per week during residence, ditto 4 10 0 Liberatura et stipendium
1 6 8 Residence money (which is more than the annual rent of a scholar's room)
24 0 0 £46 16 8
If a scholar resides more than 30 weeks in the year, he has for each additional week advantages equivalent to about 14s. 4d. more. All the scholarships have equal rights and privileges, except that the pecuniary value of Mr Newman's is confined to the net rent of the estates which form its endowment.”
Both sizars and sub-sizars are recognized in the Statutes of the College. Queen Mary gave maintenance for 13 poor scholars (sizars), which number at the time the Statutes were given had been increased to 16, the number at the present time. The sizarships, like the scholarships, are perfectly open and unrestricted. The number of sub-sizars is not limited, but the society is desirous of admitting only such as are poor scholars in the true sense of the term, and likely to become useful and distinguished members of society. “The pecuniary advantages of a foundation sizar are:
£. Dining in hall free of expence (say for 30 weeks) 17 0 0 Three shillings per week during residence, ditto 4 10 0 And 4d. per week for the whole year
0 17 4 Residence money, (£6. which is more than the usual rent of his rooms)
18 0 0 Liberatura
0 6 8 Share of consolidated exhibitions
8 10 0
£49 4 0
If a sizar reside more than 30 weeks in the year, he has, for each additional week, advantages equivalent to about 14s. 4!. more. A sizar receives also from his tutor an allowance, arising from the payments of two guineas a quarter from noblemen and one guinea from fellow-commoners, which usually amount to from £3. to £10. a year.”