The Human Central Nervous System: A Synopsis and Atlas

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 2007 - Medical - 967 pages
The present edition of The Human Central Nervous System differs considerably from its predecessors. In previous editions, the text was essentially confined to a section dealing with the various functional systems of the brain. This section, which has been rewritten and updated, is now preceded by 15 newly written chapters, which introduce the pictorial material of the gross anatomy, the blood vessels and meninges and the microstructure of its various parts and deal with the development, topography and functional anatomy of the spinal cord, the brain stem and the cerebellum, the diencephalon and the telencephalon. Great pains have been taken to cover the most recent concepts and data. As suggested by the front cover, there is a focus on the evolutionary development of the human brain. Throughout the text numerous correlations with neuropathology and clinical n- rology have been made. After much thought, we decided to replace the full Latin terminology, cherished in all previous editions, with English and Anglicized Latin terms. It has been an emotional farewell from beautiful terms such as decussatio hipposideriformis W- nekinkii and pontes grisei caudatolenticulares. Not only the text, but also the p- torial material has been extended and brought into harmony with the present state of knowledge. More than 230 new illustrations have been added and many others have been revised. The number of macroscopical sections through the brain has been extended considerably. Together, these illustrations now comprise a complete and convenient atlas for interpreting neuroimaging studies.

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Contents

Myelogenesis
510
Functional Subdivision
516
Overview
528
Current Research and Perspectives
530
Neocortical Afferents
536
Neocortical Neurons and Their Synaptic Relationships
544
Atypical Pyramidal Cells
559
Local Circuit Neurons
560

Forebrain
41
Diencephalon
44
Telencephalon
48
New Insights into the Development of Forebrain
53
References
59
Gross Anatomy
67
References
71
Blood Supply Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation
95
Meninges Cisterns and Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation
97
Circumventricular Organs
99
Vessels and Meninges of the Spinal Cord
100
References
101
Brain Slices
137
Coronal Sections
138
Sections Perpendicular to the Axis of the Brain Stem
153
Sagittal Sections
158
Horizontal Sections
165
Structure of Spinal Cord and Brain Parts
174
Topography of Spinal Cord Brain Stem and Cerebellum
177
The Grey Matter of the Cord
178
Primary Afferents
180
The White Matter of the Cord
182
Topography of the Brain Stem and the Cerebellum
190
Medulla Oblongata
191
Metencephalon and the Cerebellum
198
Mesencephalon
204
Diencephalon and the Corpus Striatum
209
References
210
Diencephalon Introduction and Epithalamus
247
References
250
Diencephalon Dorsal Thalamus
252
Parcellation of the Thalamus
255
Thalamic and Thalamocortical Circuits
259
Ventral Nuclear Group
262
Anterior Nuclear Group and Lateral Dorsal Nucleus
263
Mediodorsal Nucleus
264
Lateral Geniculate Body
265
Posterior Nuclear Complex
266
Functional Aspects
268
References
271
Diencephalon Ventral Thalamus or Subthalamus
281
Subthalamic Fibre Systems
284
References
286
Diencephalon Hypothalamus
289
Major Conduction Channels
290
Introductory Notes
293
Organization of Specific Hypothalamic Functional systems
298
Wakefulness and Sleep
301
Stress Response
305
Thermoregulation
307
Food Intake
308
Thirst
311
Sexual Behaviour
314
Defensive Behaviour
320
Summary and Concluding Remarks
322
References
323
Telencephalon Introduction and Olfactory System
337
Olfactory System
341
Olfactory Bulb
343
Secondary Olfactory Projections and Their Sites of Termination
347
Further Spread of Olfactory Information
353
Accessory Olfactory System and Terminal Nerve
355
References
357
Telencephalon Hippocampus and Related Structures
360
Topography and Structure of Hippocampus
366
Microcircuitry of Ammons Horn
372
Intrinsic Connections of the Hippocampus
375
Major Fibre Systems Connecting the Hippocampal Formation and Its Dependencies with Other Parts of the Brain
378
Afferents to the Hippocampus
379
Efferents from the Hippocampus
383
The Circuit of Papez
386
References
391
Telencephalon Amygdala and Claustrum
401
Development
403
Fibre System Related to the Amygdala
404
IntraAmygdaloid Connections
409
The Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and the Extended Amygdala Concept
414
Fibre Connections of the BST
415
Claustrum
417
Circuitry and Function
419
References
420
Telencephalon Basal Ganglia
427
Cell Masses
429
Fibre Connections
439
Subdivision of Direct Striatal Circuit
444
A Brief Excursion to the Cerebellum
447
Thalamostriatal Projections
448
Cerebral Cortex Striatum External Segment of Globus Pallidus Subthalamic Nucleus Internal Segment of Globus Pallidus and Substantia Nigra pars...
449
The StriatoNigroStriatal Circuit
451
Additional Striatal Connections
454
Connections of the Ventral Striatum
456
Connections of the Substantia Innominata Basal Nucleus of Meynert and Related Cell Groups
460
Clinical Aspects
468
Disorders of the Basal Ganglia
471
References
474
Telencephalon Neocortex
491
Sulcal Pattern
498
Myeloarchitecture
506
Microcircuitry of the Neocortex
569
Networks of Pyramidal Neurons
570
Interneuronal Systems
571
Neocortical Columns and Modules
575
Elementary Units and Glomérulos
576
The Columnar Organization of the Visual Cortex
578
The Auditory Cortex
579
Minicolumns and the Radial Unit Hypothesis of Cortical Development
581
Dendritic Clusters Axonal Bundles and Radial Cell Cords As Possible Constituents of Neocortical Minicolumns
582
Microcircuitry of Neocortical Columns
586
Comparative Aspects
591
Synopsis of Main Neocortical Regions
592
Functional and Structural Asymmetry of the Two Hemispheres
599
Occipital Lobe
600
Parietal Lobe
605
Temporal Lobe
611
Limbic Lobe and Paralimbic Belt
617
Frontal Lobe
620
Insula
649
References
653
Functional Systems
680
General Sensory Systems and Taste
683
Peripheral Receptors and Sensory Afferents
684
Architecture of the Dorsal Horn of the Spinal Cord
687
Dorsal ColumnMedial Lemniscus System
693
Sensory Relay Nuclei of the Thalamus and the Somatosensory Cortex
694
Descending Control by the Somatosensory Cortex
697
Control Mechanisms of Nociceptive Transmission
701
The Trigeminal System
702
The Visceral Afferent System
705
References
709
Vestibular System
715
of the Vestibular Nuclei
720
Efferents from the Vestibular Nuclei
721
Projections to the Spinal Cord and the Oculomotor Centres
725
Vestibuloocular Reflex Pathways
728
Vestibulocollic Reflex Pathways
729
References
730
Auditory System
733
Auditory Pathways
736
Ascending Auditory Projection
737
The Nuclei of the Lateral Lemniscus and the Inferior Colliculus
741
Medial Geniculate Body and Auditory Cortex
742
Descending Auditory Projection
744
Auditory Reflex Pathways
745
References
747
Visual System
751
Optic Nerve Chiasm and Tract
757
Localization
760
Thalamocortical Projections of the Lateral Geniculate Body
765
Functional Streams Intrinsic and Interareal Connections of V1 and V2
766
Dorsal and Ventral Processing Streams
767
Visuomotor Pathways
769
The Saccade Generating System
770
Superior Colliculus
772
Afferent Connections of the Intermediate and Deep Layers of the Superior Colliculus
777
Efferent Connections of the Superior Colliculus
778
Accessory Optic System and the Nucleus of the Optic Tract
781
The Frontal and Parietal Eye Fields
784
Pretectum and the Visual Reflexes
787
Visual System and the Cerebellum
790
References
796
Cerebellum
807
Gross Anatomy
808
Lattice Structure of the Cerebellar Cortex and the Microcircuitry of the Cerebellum
812
The Cerebellar Nuclei the Modular Organization of the Cerebellar Output and the Efferent Connections of the Cerebellum
820
Localization in the Cerebellum
826
Function and Malfunction of the Cerebellum
833
References
834
Motor Systems
840
The Motor Cortex
849
The Origin of the Corticospinal and Corticobulbar Tracts
851
Corticocortical Cerebellar and Pallidal Connections of the Primary Motor Cortex and the Premotor Areas
855
Properties of the Primary Motor and the Premotor Areas
859
The Cranial Motor Nuclei
862
The Motor Nucleus of the Trigeminal Nerve
863
The Nucleus of the Facial Nerve
865
Swallowing and Vocalization
867
Brain Stem Control of Spinal Motor Systems
872
Brain Stem Control of Micturition and Ejaculation
878
References
880
The Reticular Formation and the Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Cell Groups
889
Monoaminergic Cell Groups and Pathways
893
Adrenergic and Noradrenergic Cell Groups
898
Dopaminergic Cell Groups
901
Cholinergic Cell Groups
902
Connections of the Reticular Formation and Associated Cell Groups
903
References
908
Greater Limbic System
917
The Concept of a Greater Limbic System GLS
923
and Chemical Features of GLS
925
A Brief Guide to Discussions of Limbic Structures in Previous Chapters
930
The Limbic Motor System
934
Concluding Remarks
941
References
942
Subject Index
947
Copyright

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Page 656 - Posterior parietal cortex in rhesus monkey: II. Evidence for segregated corticocortical networks linking sensory and limbic areas with the frontal lobe.
Page 274 - Retrograde axonal transport and the demonstration of non-specific projections to the cerebral cortex and striatum from thalamic intralaminar nuclei in the rat, cat and monkey. J. comp. Neurol.
Page 659 - Foote, SL, Aston-Jones, G, and Bloom. FE, 1980, Impulse activity of locus coeruleus neurons in awake rats and monkeys is a function of sensory stimulation and arousal, Proc.
Page 750 - WB (1978) The olivocochlear bundle: its origins and terminations in the cat. In: Naunton RF, Fernandez C (eds) Evoked electrical activity in the auditory nervous system. Academic Press, New York, pp 43-63 110.
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Page 664 - Burton H (1976) Areal differences in the laminar distribution of thalamic afferents in cortical fields of the insular, parietal and temporal regions of primates.
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Page 425 - Bunney BS (1989) Topographical organization of the efferent projections of the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat: an anterograde tract-tracing study with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. J Comp Neurol 290:213-242.
Page 750 - Warr, WB (1975). Olivocochlear and vestibular efferent neurons of the feline brain stem: Their location, morphology, and number determined by retrograde axonal transport and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. J. Comp. Neurol.

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