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future state. Surely, therefore, there tality: they are not convertible terms." needs no comparison of the superior So also Mr. Rennell, in his Remarks, sanctions to virtue in the gospel scheme p. 113: "The principle of volition, and of the glorious superiority of that because it is immaterial, is not, theredivine illumination which lights us fore, of necessity, immortal.” · These through the dark valley of the shadow admissions, however, were necessary, of death. Ignorance and prejudice since they knew that any argument may, and indeed do, assert, that the used to prove

the necessary

self-existChristian Materialist, proceeding on the ence of the soul, went to prove its presame reasoning with the Sceptical Ma- existence—an absurdity too great for terialist, would necessarily be subject even them to undertake, skilled as to the same contempt of revelation they are in maintaining paradoxes. and futurity, and which, if pushed to Now, if immateriality be not necessaits extent, would lead to the Atheist's rily immortal, common sense must creed of a material Deity; but this by perceive that it cannot be a requisite no means follows, and we shall give or material part of the creed of a the present controversy in evidence. Christian ; or at all events, that it is We strongly contend, on behalf of equally subject with matter to decay Christian Materialists, that, as far as and perish; since, by their confession> revelation is concerned, their opinions immateriality may have a beginning make not a shadow of difference. We and an end, and yet man attain imdo not enter into the various theories mortality. Where, then, is the object of Immateriality, which, indeed, is a of dispute, or where any preference of term for a something of which no one the two opinions? And even had there has yet given any distinct explanation. not been this luckless admission, who We are ourselves strongly inclined to would be the sceptic ;-the Immaterithe hypothesis of Mr. Locke, who alist, who reckoned on futurity as the thought there was some wrknown prin- necessary result of an imperishable ciple superadded to matter to confer vital principle; or the Unitarian Christhe faculty of thinking ; but we do not tian Materialist, who placed his hope wish to obtrude our own individual in the power and benevolence of liis speculations on our readers : we only Creator, and on the fact of one Man, wish to inculcate Mr. Locke's liberal Christ Jesus, having actually risen from accompaniment, that these metaphy- the dead? We think St. Paul has sical riddles have no right to be ob- answered this: “If Christ be not risen, truded as creeds, and that, however ye are yet in your sins, and those also that faculty may exist, “ it cannot be who are fallen asleep in Jesus are in any created being but merely by the perished.”—“ But now is Christ risen good pleasure and bounty of the Cre- from the dead, and become the firstator." See Essay on H. Und. B. iv. fruits of them that slept.” Did St. Ch. 3.

Paul believe in futurity on any other But to exhibit the same evident trust than that of the resurrection of truism from these metaphysical alarm- our Saviour? Did he believe in an ists themselves, we will quote the fol- intermediate state of the son!, previlowing accidental and simple slip of ous to the resurrection of the body? the pen in the very first page of the And how many sublime passages in Quarterly Review, and after which its his writings are destroyed by the supscurrility requires no other antidote:- position of an intermediate state ! “ It can scarcely be necessary to re

The Christian Materialist founds his mind our readers, in limnine, that the hope on the immediate power of the nature of the living principle is among Deity ; the Immaterialist, on the subthe subjects which are manifestly be ordinate agency of a supposititious viyond the reach of human investigation. tal principle ; yet the latter denounces The effects and the properties of life the former as a sceptic! Mr. Macleay, are indeed obvious to our senses to whose candour we have before apthrough the whole range of organized pealed, has stated our own opinions creation; but on what they depend, on this head with great force." The and how they are produced, never has necessary immortality of the human been discovered, and probably 'never soul is a dogma as much in opposition will”! And again, p. 20: “Immateri- to the idea of Divine Omnipotence, as ality does not necess

essarily imply immor. its necessary mortality. Without the

assurances of revelation, the immorta- of some of those unfortunate young lity of the soul could never have been gentlemen who are occasionally introascertained ; nay, perhaps might have duced to his anatomical inquisition by been reasonably doubted.”—P. 479. steel traps, spring guns, and the sen

We fear we have entered too fully tences of Mr. Justice Best. Mr. Lasyinto the general question to admit rence also occasionally volunteers a of any quotations from the different remark on the comparative anatomy works, the particular subject of our of the American and English governreview. Of Mr. Lawrence's volumes, ments; and we shrewdly suspect that we cannot sufficiently, express our this effluvia of civil liberty has offended praise of the scientific knowledge and the olfactory nerves of the Quarterly love of truth which everflows every Review and its patrons. We conceive page; and it is lamentable that the these zealous Immaterialists are just deadly poison of bigotry should have as much interested for religion as the been employed against the works of faculty of a northern metropolis, who an author, which bid fair to redeem so memorably opposed the election of our character in Comparative Anatomy Leslie to their mathematical chair on and Physiology. The lectures on the the ground of his Materialism, and natural history of man are of course have since preferred a candidate for more interesting to the general reader. the lectureship of Moral Philosophy, Mr. Rennell may term the following reputed to have made a cock-pit of his sentence Atheism, from p. 30 of the drawing-room, parodies on the words two Introductory Lectures, but we do of Scripture, and a living by the editornot: “ From the modifications of ship of Blackwood's Magazine. Such structure, and its constant relation to is the physical reward of “ plastic the wants, habits and powers of ani- natures, and of those who uphold the mals, there arises the strongest evi- policy of the “ social” system, in thindence of final purposes, and tiereforening his Majesty's redundant populathe strongest proof of an INTELLIGENT tion at Tyburn Gate! “ ReligionFirst Cause." We shall not, how- Politics—there's a couple of topics ever, reflect on the understanding of for you, no more like one another our readers by further quoting numer- than oil and vinegar; and yet, these ous sentences on “ that Exalted Power two, beaten together by a state cook, and Wisdom, in testimony of which all make sauce for the whole nation.” nature cries aloud,” (to use the words Of the part which Mr. Abernethy of Mr. Lawrence, p. 52 of his Physio- has written and acted, we cannot give logy,) and repeated in language too unqualified approbation, highly as we fervid, pious and eloquent to admit a estimate his strong and original talent, doubt of his sincerity. He has no and the obligations due to him for

his where, in matter, that we can disco- advancement of surgical science. But ver, impugned the truth of revelation: as a philosopher, he should have supand whatever may be his opinions, ported Mr. Lawrence in maintaining the (and they are certainly of comparative independence of the chair, however he insignificancy to the subject of his might have differed from him in opiworks,) we are sure Mr. Lawrence has nion. We g. 'e Mr. Abernethy credit too much common sense to believe for sincere motives in a wish to secure, that Christianity can be disposed of in as he conceived, the religious princia parenthesis. We certainly can disco- ples of the students; but we think he ver a detestation of priesteraft, which, ought rather to have shewn the insigwhatever may be the policy or pro- nificancy of the dispute as far as conpriety of disseminating it through the cerned religion, on that beautiful senmedium of his Lectures, does honour timent of the pious and philosophical to him in an age where talent and Bonnet, so often quoted by Dr. Priestpolitical prostitution are such saleable ley and others : " Si quelqu'un commodities in the market of corrup- montreroit jamais que l' âme est matétion. But we do confess we are some- rielle, loin de s'en enlarmer, il faudroit what puzzled to discover the relevancy admirer la puissance qui auroit donné of a note on the Game Laws, which a la matière la capacité de penser.Mr. Lawrence introduces as an alterative to the subject ; unless, indeed, it had been a short biographical notice * Congreve's Lore for Love.

VOL. XVII.

2 A

Mr. Abernethy, on the contrary, like we intended also to have quoted at all Immaterialists, edges in his own some length from the 9th article in hypothesis, and endeavours to define our notice, “ The Letter on the rethat which he pronounces undiscover- puted Immateriality of the Human able. A theory of Mr. John Hunter's Soul.” We can now only commend is the grand specific prescribed for the it to our readers as a most impartial prevention and cure of Mr. Lawrences and intelligent review, coinciding als influence. He has since exhibited it most entirely with our own opinions ; in several subsequent forms—in a lit- and we have the greater pleasure in tle anonymous tract on the Human these commendations, understanding Mind, dedicated to (by) himself; and its author is a clergyman of the Estalately in some reflections on Dr. Gall blishment. and Spurtzeim's System of Physiog- The anonymous author of the “ Curnomy and Phrenology. Indeed, from sory Remarks,” is an alarmnist of the the assiduity with which this grand old school, and deals wholesale in the mental catholicon is published, we odium theologicum. And the “ Graexpect some morning to see John duate of Medicine” might have saved Hunter's name supersede on the walls himself, the public, the paper manuand churches of the metropolis, “ Dr. facturer and printer, much trouble, Eady, Dean Street, Soho.". Leucip, by not going to press, with the candid pus, we remember, described the vital confession that he knows nothing of principle as a certain blue flame; and the subject. The remaining volume, this Hunterian hypothesis of Mr. Aber- “ Sketches of the Philosophy of Life,” nethy's may be termed the PILLULA by Sir C. Morgan, though an imposSalutaria, or blue pill of his meta. ing title, is rather a shallow performphysics. Whatever effect this physio- ance, and exhibits depth only in verbal logical opinion may have on his pati- mystification, as will appear in the ents, most certain it is that it did not following sentence, quoted also by the preserve the faith' of Mr. Hunter him- Quarterly Review; a bog of mystifiself, who was a notorious Atheist. cation, in which we think scarcely a And the Deism of Sir William Drum- recondite German metaphysician could mond, enveloped in clonds of immate- see his way of extrication. riality, is a pretty practical proof how

“ Essentially linked with the power of little this vaunted nostrum is a stay to loco-motion, relative sensibility is distriinfidelity

buted to the different animals in an exact We had intended here to have made proportion to the wants of their organisome remarks on the scepticism im- zation, being resident in a tissue, whose puted to the medical profession, and developement is regulated in the various to have ventured some observations on species, by the sphere of activity necesthe causes of it, and the most proba- sary to their preservation !”—P. 276. ble remedy, but we defer them to some We would now ask the “ Christian future occasion. The immortal Hart. Advocate of Cambridge,” whether he ley, Dr. Percival and Dr. Rush, have, really considers such arrant nonsense however, been distinguished excep- as endangering the existence of Christions. In an ingenious work of the tianity; and whether these hopeless latter on the diseases of the mind, he disputes of Physiologists (past the elasses one which he calls the “ De- comprehension of the “ learned" themrangement in the Principle of Faith, selves) can possibly influence the relior the Believing Faculty, and enume- gious principles of the poor and unrates two classes of diseased those learned, for whom Christianity was who believe and report everything preached ? Certainly,” says Bishop they hear, and those who have an Fell, “the first propagators of our ivability to believe things that are sup- faith proceeded at another rate; they ported by all the evidence that usually well knew, that not the brain but the enforces belief: amongst these last he heart was the proper soil of that celes

persons who refuse to admit tial plant, and therefore did not amuse human testimony in favour of the their proselytes with curious questions, truths of the Christian religion, be- but set them to the active part of their lieving in all the events of profane religion." history.” Ch. xi.

We esteem all these metaphysical In the commencement of this paper cobwebs as more fit “ to catch flies

tanks “

Its argu

than men ;" and an attempt to ascer- signed ; no calumnies, however black; tain a final cause of the nature of which so long as we can triumphantly appeal we are profoundly ignorant, and likely to the public libraries of our country: to continue se.

Whence originated your most learned - nature is but the name for an effect and laborious works on the external Whose cause is God."

evidence of Christianity and on its We have previously stated that our disinterestedness of Unitarian Chris

internal proof? From the piety and opinions on the nature of the vital

tians. principle are extremely unsettled: we

To conclude: we have thought it hold it right to confess our ignorance, necessary to make these remarks, feeland to leave these secret things to the ing that we are interested parties in Lord our God. As liberal Christians, the controversy, and that, with so we shall never underrate the value of much contumely wasted upon us, our our reason. God forbid that we should silence might be imputed to a stricken countenance the folly of those who

conscience. love to soak in mystery and contradic

We are not among those who consitions ; but we do condemn that pre- der that natural religion affords no sumptuous pride which, forgetting the hope of futurity; on the contrary, we limitation of the human understanding, consider its evidence as introductory soars beyond its sphere, and that in to the revealed assurance. pious arrogance which, ignorant of the ments have been entorced with pecuends of the Deity, dares to judge of biar strength by Dr. Jortin and Dr. the fitness of the means he employs in Price, and lately in the luminous and the government of his creation, In- practical sermons of Dr. Rees. On tellectual pride is the Scylla of krow- this subject we differ from many disledge, and Infidelity its Charybdis. tinguished Unitarian writers, who, we What innumerable errors does it ori- think, have done great injury to the ginate, and how many youthful minds, cause of natural and revealed religion, ardent in the pursuit of knowledge, by denying the evidence of the former, have been shipwrecked on its danger- in a weak jealousy, as if they could ous breakers ! And how many delusive not otherwise enhance the value of meteors have been mistaken for the revelation. Yet these same writers lighthouse of reason !

have written zealously on the analogy “ At best thou’rt but a glimmering light, of natural and revealed religion, as if

Which serves not to direct our way; all other points of resemblance do not But, like the moon, confounds our sight, sink into insignificancy compared with And only shews it is not day."

the grand doctrine of a fuiure state. 0.xford Bliscell. 1685.

And, surely, on the most important We are well aware of the popular of all relations we may expect to disimputations against Unitarianism : we cover some analogy. We are far from may, perhaps, sometimes, in ourardour contending that the arguments from against the corruptions and abuses of natural religion in favour of futurity, religion, have fallen into the opposite are by any means calculated for the extreme; and in our anxiety to root generality of mankind ; nor, indeed, up the dogmatisms of orthodoxy, we can we consider them conclusive for may have planted speculative scions of the more enlightened and learned, since our own. We do not think it neces- the contrary opinions of Deists, and sary or liberal to animadvert on some the many pathetic lamentations of backslidings of former years, however the ancient philosophers of their want lamentable some of those instances of additional assurance, indisputably may be regarded, or whatever their prove that they are not; and we also causes. But we repel with indigna- know, that much argument has been tion the imputation of infidelity. The adduced against excepting human naprofession of the law, nay, the very ture from the perishable fate of the bosom of the Established Church, and whole material world. But still we the annals of the mitre itself, will sup- cannot but place great confidence in ply a larger comparative number of the attributes of an all-wise, beneficent those who are known to have renounced and omnipotent Being ; in the moral revelation; and we need fear no mise evidence resulting from the unequal representations, however wilfully de- distribution of good and evil; froin

the persecution and suffering of the nexion of the Jewish and Christian virtuous, and the too frequent success covenants; from the necessity of some and impunity of the vicious. These super-human communication, (a neces. arguments, coupled with the power sity which sceptics themselves prove of the Creator, who first made us to to exist by the folly they impute to recreate us, constitute, in our opinion, the whole civilized world for believing a very strong and rational ground for revelation); from the evidence of probelief in a future state, independent phecy and miracles; from the single, of the evidence of Christianity; and incomparable and inimitable personal form, also, a very important and secure character of our Saviour; from the ground-work for the superstructure of unrivalled perfection of his moral revelation.

code, a system of Ethics which, even These arguments, aided by the tra- if not original in all its principles, at dition of her ancestors, doubtless em- all events embodies and concentrates boldened that heroic Jewess (whose every virtue which natural religion had story is so inimitably related in 2 Mac- taught the wise men of all previous cahees vii.) to encourage the immola- ages and countries; the number and tion of her children by a foreign tyrant disinterestedness of the witnesses who and her own martyrdom, rather than handed down this revelation, and who, transgress the Mosaic law, and to the more ignorant and bigoted they cheer them in their dying agonies with may be represented by sceptics, were, that pious exhortation—" I cannot therefore, proportionably less able to tell how ye came into my womb; for invent such a system, and promulgate I neither gave you breath nor life, it with consistency and effect; from neither was it I that formed the mem- the numerous historical documents bers of every one of you ; but doubt- which in regular succession have transJess the Creator of the world, who mitted these circumstances to the preformed the generations of man, and sent times; from the peculiarly strong found out the beginning of all things, evidence contained in these writings, will also, of his own mercy, give you (the genuineness admitted,) for the breath and life again, as ye now regard grand miracle of the physical resurnot your own selves for his law's sake." rection of Jesus Christ; from the final This ancient and universal expectation spread of his religion over the whole of futurity is what the poetical author civilized world; from the effects it has of the Cypress Grove, describes as already produced, and those that may “ the voice of nature in almost all the be reasonably anticipated; from the religions of the world, that general remarkable accordance of its princitestimony charactered in the minds of ples with those of civil liberty and the the most barbarous and savage people; signs of the times; from the realizafor all have had some roving guesses tion of its promises of hope and conat ages to come, and a dim, duskish solation to the afflicted and dying ; and, light of another life, all appealing to lastly, in the recorded faith of most of one general judgment throne. To what the enlightened philosophers of all subelse could serve so many expiations, sequent ages and countries; although sacrifices, prayers, solemnities and too many of them, it must be admitted, mystical ceremonies ? To what such have also given their assent to the sumptuous temples and care of the most contradictory and unchristian dead? To what all religion, if not to additions. shew that they expected a more excel. Many men of distinguished intellect lent manner of being, after the navi- have credited revelation on single parts gation of this life did take an end ?” of this evidence: who, then, can deny

But we should be sorry to rest that Christianity with so much internal belief solely on tradition or metaphy- light of its own perfections ; with so sics : we believe it on the authority of inany miraculous, providential attestathe New Testament; and though we tions, and with a knowledge of its are not prepared to say there is a effects? Mr. Lawrence has not inaptly demorstration, yet we do solemnly quoted the authority of Socrates, that think it is little short of demonstra. greatest of the ancient philosophers, tion, when we duly consider the variety as pointing out the surest admission of evidence, from the indisputably re. into the temple of wisdom through the cout origin of our race; from the con- portal of doubt. Surely, then, on the

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