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same principle, we may counsel the the sceptic. Those political Christians religious sceptic, with so much evi- who regard churches in the light of dence for Christianity, to doubt ere he barracks, may reasonably feel alarmed irrevocably makes up his mind against for legitimacy. What, however, can the truth of revelation. For this evi- the cause of civil and religious liberty dence, we affirm, constitutes a barrier gain by the recent persecution of of proof which, we confess, we can- Deists, but prejudice against the docnot discover any means of surmount- trines of Christ in the hands of such ing by those who have studied its followers? What effect can be wrought nature. We know we shall be an- on the contemptible objects of such swered, that ours is a spare faith, and anti-christian zeal, but by this odious that so long as Christians are not agreed proscription to congregate unbelievers as to what is Christianity, assent must together, where they are sure to misbe withheld from it. But would not take the repetition of their objections this argument equally apply against for increased number and strength ? the study of physiology itself, where This “illiterate policy” never yet atwe observe doctors so materially dis- tained its end, and never will: and agree? And, in the quaint language of that such barbarism should be var. old Richard Baxter, “ All arguments nished with the colouring of religion, be not weak which some men dare “what is it,” says the admirable Robindeny. Is not the high way right son, in his Remarks on Deism, “but except every man hit it? A drunken the voice of Jacob and the hands of man may go beside it, and a wise man Esau ?” that is not used to it may miss it, or We bere again repeat, that our opi. by credulity may be turned by others nions are not those of the Materialist, out of his way, and yet the way may since we cannot reconcile many of the be right and plain too, for all that. phenomena of life and sensation to Will you think nothing certain in phi- that hypothesis. All that we feel sure losophy, because philosophers are of of is, and in this it appears all agree, so many minds? Or will you re- that God imparted to us the “ breath nounce all physicians because they of life.” The Pentateuch, whatever ordinarily disagree? Or if a Lon- may be its authority, does not inform doner have a journey into the countrey, us how ; nor, in our judgment, will which his life lyeth on, will be not go men of science ever make such an his journey because the clocks dis- addition to revelation. But Mateagree? Or will he not set on till all rialism. having been the opinion of the clocks in London strike at once? many eminent and Christian philosoOr will he never give any credit to a phers, we have often, on the possibiclock till then?

lity of its truth, examined its relation But should there be those who, and consistency with the Christian from ignorance of these accumulated doctrine of a future state. In those evidences, or who, knowing them, are sequestered moments when the mind untrue to their understandings, deny wanders beyond the grave, the reflecthe super-huinan origin of Christianity, tions in these pages have arisen; and and publicly dissensinate their scep- candour obliges us to concede an ticism, we shall ever contend, that equally pious and rational hope of the immutable principles of religious futurity to the Materialist as his prefreedom are as much their right, and judiced opponents arrogate to themmay be as safely extended to their selves; nor can we conceive how the opinions, as to those of any Pro- mere belief of either party can affect testant Dissenters. Nay, many zeal- their practice. ous Christian have contended that they We have studiously avoided all reought to be encouraged to produce ference to our title in the promises of their objections, certain that Truth the gospel. We have a humble trust must emerge with renewed power and that he who gave us the blessing of glory from the contest. PriestIANITY this life, will continue his goodness in indeed may suffer, and the “alliance its renewal after death; knowing between Church and State” be endan- that he which raised up the Lord Jesus, gered, but true Christianity will re- shall raise us up also by. Jesus, and ceive no wound from the assaults of shall present us with you.” Would that Christians could be brought to last Number we signified our intens believe that we are candidates for, not tion of inserting in our work the whole judges of, heaven.

of Mr. Hall's Letter from the LeicesIn the eloquent language of an ter Chronicle ; but as it has been since anonymous review of the controversy published in the form of a pamphlet, with Dr. Priestley on Matter and Spi- as above, we deem it an act of fairness rit-" Then farewell the obscure spe- to the publisher, to content ourselves culation of metaphysics. They embar- with this notice of it, in the shape of rass me no more. The mere philoso. a review. pher may indulge them if he pleaseth ; The “Apology” appeared nearly and if he can gain any amusement or thirty years ago, and excited, as it deany satisfaction from them, I envy served, considerable attention. Since him not. He purchaseth it at a rate that period, Mr. Hall has, until now, too dear for me; and placeth his hopes abstained from polities in his writings ; on what I should regard as the most or rather has manifested a leaning to insecure foundation. But do not a very different system from that which think me the enemy of science because first engaged his affections and drew I consider it as ill applied in the inves- out his eloquence. It was for a long tigation of a subject so much beyond time supposed that he privately disaits reach. Let it operate in its own vowed and would have been glad to sphere, and, by a patient research into recall the productions of his youthful those natural objects which fall more enthusiasm on behalf of freedom. If immediately under the scrutiny of the the rumour were correct, he has unsenses, enlarge the boundaries of hu- dergone a re-conversion and returned anan knowledge. I hail her progress, to his first love. On this subject, Mr. and wish I could add a laurel to her Hall is entitled to speak for himself: brow. But let her not presume to “ It certainly is very unusual for a trespass on the hallowed enclosures of writer to suppress his own publications, heaven's own iminediate messenger. unless he has recanted the principles they Her feeble taper may light the curious contain. To persevere in doing so, nataphilosophic eye through nature's walks. rally exposes him to the suspicion either But it is the full, unclounded sun of that he has renounced his former opithe everlasting gospel that can alone, nions, or that he is afraid to avow them; with safety, guide the doubting mind but neither of these situations is mine. of man through the paths of religion

I have changed vo principle, and I feel

10 fear. Why then should I act in such to the world of immortality. The dove sent from the ark of reason and table to either of these imputations?

a manner as must render me perpetually philosophy, wanders over a boundless For a considerable time, indeed, after expanse, a dreary waste of unfathoma. loud and repeated importunities, I de ble waters. Fatigned with its fruit. clined a compliance with the wishes exless excursions, it returns, but brings pressed for republication, from a sincere no olive branch to me. Thanks be reluctance to engage in political controto the immortal Redeemer of the versy. By one party, in the mean while, world, I receive this pledge of peace claimed as a convert, and by the other

it was my fortune to be so unequivocally from a higher region. I press it to my trembling heart; and methinks it

so assailed with reproaches as an apostate, gains fresh verdure while I bedew it

that I was convinced by experience there with the mingled tears of gratitude the misrepresentations of both, but to

was no other way of putting an end to and penitence."

republish the original pamphlet. Had I C-s.

never written it, the same motives which

made me reluctant to reprint, might Art. XI.-A Reply to a Review in probably have prevented my writing it;

The Christian Guardian, January, but since there is not a principle in it 1822, of

An Apology for the which I can conscientiously retract, and Freedom of the Press,"3" fc. By my silence has occasioned numerous misRobert Hall, A.M. With the Re. and manly part was doubtless to republish

representatious and mistakes, the fair view extracted. 8yo., 2nd ed., pp. it. An ivgesuous mind is not less ashamed 18. Holdsworth.

of receiving praises it is conscious it has N our acknowledgements to Cor- not deserved, ihan indignant at reproaches respondents on the Wrapper of the which are not merited."-P. 4.

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The “Christian Guardian," a minor day of rest to deeds of blood, has, by a theological journal, in the hands of strange fatality, obtained a sort of polithe soi-disant “Evangelical Church- tical beatification. Hinc illæ lachryme.” men, took oceasion from the re-pub

P. 5. lication of the “ Apology," to task

The original edition of the “Apothe author, as if he had been guilty logy” contained some passages of seof apostacy. This class of men have vere crimination against Bishop Horsbeen for some years accustomed to ley, and of glowing eulogy on Drs. pay excessive homage to Mr. Hall's Price and Priestley : these, it would talents, and their present chagrin is appear from our correspondent Homo, equal to their former admiration. (pp. 168, 169,) are somewhat altered Their “ Review" of the new edition of in the present edition : enough, howhis pamphlet manifests the affectation ever, remains to excite the disapproof dislike of politics that is invaria- bation of " Evangelical” Churehmen, bly expressed by the religionists that and accordingly the “Christian Guarwould bend the Bible and yoke the dian” vents its pity or its rage at this conscience to those very polítics that desecration of a saint, and apotheosis foster corruption and tend to slavery. of sinners. Mr. Hall's reply is, upon Mr. Hall exposes very plainly this the whole, worthy of himself: we quahypocrisy:

lify onr opinion, because we wonder “ But a minister of the gospel, it should applaud or even admit the

that with his acute discernment he seems, is on no occasion to meddle with party politics. How exactly this maxim

general correctness” of Horsley's was adhered to at the commencement of

speculative theology :" the late war, when military banners were “ Another head of accusation is, that consecrated, and the people every where have censured the character of Bishop summoned to arms

Horsley, whose character, the Reviewer * By pulpit drum ecclesiastic,

tells us, 'is far removed beyond my atBeat with fist instead of a stick,'

tack, while I have eulogized Dr. Price

and Dr. Priestley, Socinians.' To this is must be fresh in the recollection of my is sufficient to reply that Dr. Price was readers. The men who in the garb of not a Socinian, but an Arian; he wrote clergymen bustle at electioneering meet- professedly in confutation of Socinianism; ings, forsooth, are not really such, but and though I disapprove of his religious merely assume the disguise of that holy principles, I feel no hesitation in atirmorder, since it would be uncaudid to sup- ing, in spite of the frantic and unprinpose they can so universally lose sight of cipled abuse of Burke, that a more ardent what is befitting ministers of the gospel, and enlightened friend of his country The venerable bench of Bishops who sit never lived, than that venerable patriarch in the House of Lords, either attend in of freedom. Such were the sentiments of silent pomp, without taking any part in the worshipful Corporation of London, the deliberations, or they violate the who, in token of their esteem, presented character of ministers of the gospel. We him with the frecdom of the City in a must have been grossly imposed upon by golden box; such was the judgment of the public prints which informed us of Mr. Pitt, who long professed himself his the clergy of a whole archdeaconry or admirer, and condescended to seek his diocese, meeting to petition Parliament advice on questions of fivance.

Dr. against the Catholic Claims, since they Priestley, it is acknowledged, was a Socould never with one consent depart so cinian; but it was not under that chafar from the decorum of ministers of the racter that he was eulogized. It was as gospel.

the friend of liberty, the victim of into - The plain state of the case is, not lerance, and the author of some of the that the writer is offended at my med- most brilliant philosophical discoveries of dling with politics, but that I have med modern times, for which he was celedled on the wrong side. Had the same brated throughout Europe, and his wame mediocrity of talent been exerted in eulo- enrolled as a member of the most illusgizing the measures of ministry, his greet- trious institutions ; so that my eulogy ings would have been as loud as his in- was but a mere feeble echo of the appective is bitter. But it was exerted to plause which resounded from every civiexpose public abuses, to urge the neces- lized portion of the globe. And are we sity of Reform, and lay open the tergiver- suddenly fallen back into the darkness sation of the Heaven-born Minister and and ignorance of the middle ages, during Şunday Duellist, who, after devoling the which the spell of a stupid and unfeeling uniformity bound the nations in iron slum- “ In relation to the question of ecclebers, that it has become a crime to praisesiastical establishments, since I am chala man for talents which the whole world lenged to produce any passage from admired, and for virtues which his ene- Scripture which sanctions my opposition mies confessed, merely because his reli- to them, I beg leave to refer him to gious creed was erroneous ? If any thing our Lord's declaration : • Every plant could sink orthodoxy into contempt, it which my heavenly Father has not plantwould be its association with such gothic ed shall be rooted up.' That national barbarity of sentiment, such reptile mean- churches, or exclusive establishments of ness. What renders the wretched bigotry religion by the civil magistrate, are one of the Reviewer the more conspicuous is, of these plants, will not be denied, since that the eulogy in question was written nothing of that kind, it is universally almost immediately after the Birmingham allowed, existed during the three first and Riots, that disgraceful ebullition of po- purest ages of Christianity, and not being

pular phrensy, during which a ferocious authorized by the great Head of the mob tracked his steps like bloodhounds, Church, it must, if we believe him, be demolished his house, destroyed his li- rooted up. I have used the term great brary and apparatus, and, advancing from Head of the Church, by way of distincthence to the destruction of private and tion from that little Head which the public buildings, filled the whole town Church of England has invented, and on and vicinity with terror and dismay. What which, whether it be a beauty or a desort of a Christian Guardian the Reviewer formity in the body of Christ, the Scripwould hare proved on that occasion, may tures are certainly as silent, as on Unibe easily inferred from his passing over versal Suffrage and Annual Parliaments." these atrocities in silence, while he dis- -P. 9. charges his malice on their unoffending victim,

We have seen, in the second of our The maxim, De mortuis nil nisi bonum, extracts, that Mr. Hall regards the admits of exceptions; and as I am vilified memory of Mr. Pitt with no peculiar for ceusuring Bishop Horsley, whose cha: veneration; he concludes the Letter racter, it is affirmed, is far removed with some very bold animadversions beyond my attack,' while I praised Priest

upon the character of the celebrated ley, the Socinian, justice compels me to

minister : remark (what the Reviewer probably knows well enough) that in the virtues

“ Having already trespassed on the of private life, Dr. Priestley was as much patience of my readers, I shall close superior to his antagouist, as he was

with one remark on the eulogium proinferior in the correctness of his specula- nounced by the Reviewer on the character tive theology."-Pp. 5–7.

of the late Mr. Pitt. He appears to be The “Evangelical” conductors of extremely shocked with the freedom and the “Christian Guardian” are masters severity of my strictures on his conduct, of the art of controversy, and have as implying a forgetfulness of his singular brought in the names of Hone and disinterestedness and his perfect devoCarlile to embitter their accusations. tion to his country.' As this has become Mr. Hall is justly indignant at this

a favourite topic with the admirers of artifice. Does he not, however, dis

that celebrated minister, it is necessary

to remind them, that there are other play some portion of the willing pre- vices besides the love of money, and other judice that he condemns, when he virtues besides that of dying poor.. It attributes blasphemy to the publica- may be easily admitted, that the ambition tions of Mr. Hone? He himself, which grasps at the direction of an emtruly defines blasphemy, “the speak- pire, and the pitiful passion for accumuing contumeliously of God,” and we lation, were not the inmates of the same are persuaded that the writer last bosom. In minds of a superior order, named, would feel as much horror as ambition, like Aaron's rod, is quite suffi

“ Christian Guardian” cient to swallow up the whole fry of at such an outrage upon public feeling petty propensities.-Far be it from me as well as upon piety.

to wish to withhold an atom of the praise Let Mr. Hall expect no more com

justly due to him. That he devoted

much time and a considerable portion of pliments from clergymen and bishops talent to the affairs of his country, is and ministers of state; the following undeniable. The evils which he has passage fixes him for life an unac- brought upon us were not the production commodating, untameable Noncor- of an ordinary miod, nor the work of a formist :

day, nor done in sport ; but what I con

Mr. Hall or any

tend for is, that, to say nothing of his of Heaven, is the usual, the destined preunparalleled apostacy, his devotion to his cursor of the fall of states."—Pp. 13, 14. country, and, what was worse, its devotion to him, have been the source of more

Our notice of this publication is, we calamity to this nation, than any other are aware, disproportionate to its size, event that has befallen it, and that the but we agree with the religious public memory of Pitt will be identified in the in general, that Mr. Hall is no comrecollection of posterity with accumulated mon writer, and we cannot repress our taxes, augmented debt, extended pau- satisfaction at seeing him once more perism, a debasement and prostration of take the foremast rank amongst the the public mind, and a system of policy friends and advocates of ecclesiastical not only hostile to the cause of liberty at and political reform. We hope that home, but prompt and eager to detect this is not his last contribution to the and tread out every 'spark of liberty in Europe ; in a word, with all those images tively co-operate with those that are

same good cause, but that he will acimports. The enthusiasm with which stemming the tide of corruption, which his character is regarded by a numerous has set in so strongly under the influclass of his countrymen will be ascribed ence of a puling sentimalism, and of a by a distant age, to that mysterious infa- selfish and worldly profession of sanctuation which, in the inscrutable counsels tity.



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Tennent, formerly Pastor of the PresbyVOL. XVII.

2 B

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