Beyond the Cognitive Map: From Place Cells to Episodic Memory
MIT Press, 1999 - Medical - 420 pages
There are currently two major theories about the role of the hippocampus, a distinctive structure in the back of the temporal lobe. One says that it stores a cognitive map, the other that it is a key locus for the temporary storage of episodic memories. A. David Redish takes the approach that understanding the role of the hippocampus in space will make it possible to address its role in less easily quantifiable areas such as memory. Basing his investigation on the study of rodent navigation--one of the primary domains for understanding information processing in the brain--he places the hippocampus in its anatomical context as part of a greater functional system.
Redish draws on the extensive experimental and theoretical work of the last 100 years to paint a coherent picture of rodent navigation. His presentation encompasses multiple levels of analysis, from single-unit recording results to behavioral tasks to computational modeling. From this foundation, he proposes a novel understanding of the role of the hippocampus in rodents that can shed light on the role of the hippocampus in primates, explaining data from primate studies and human neurology. The book will be of interest not only to neuroscientists and psychologists, but also to researchers in computer science, robotics, artificial intelligence, and artificial life.
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The water maze consists of a large pool of water mixed with milk, chalk, or paint
so as to make the water opaque. Somewhere in the pool, there is a platform on
which the rodent can stand and be out of the water (see figure 2.1). Sometimes
These authors have examined caudate lesions and hippocampal lesions in four
important tasks: the radial maze, the plus maze, and the cued and hidden
platform water maze. On the water maze, hippocampal lesions impair navigation
... 1995; Redish and Touretzky, 1998a). Recent data suggest that the location of
the hidden platform in the water maze is never consolidated from hippocampus (
Koerner et al., 1996; Weisend, Astur, and Sutherland, 1996; Koerner et al, 1997).
Somewhere in the pool, there is a platform on which the rodent can stand and be
out of the water. Sometimes the platform is submerged just below the surface; this
is called the hidden platform water maze. Other times, the platform sticks out ...
Rats with hippocampal or fimbria-fornix lesions can learn to perform the hidden
platform water maze under certain conditions (Morris et al., 1990; Whishaw,
Cassel, and Jarrard, 1995; Schallert et al., 1996; Whishaw and Jarrard, 1996).