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count for themselves;" “ All men, women, and children, must account for themselves ;" “ Every man must account for him. self." Each of these assertions conveys the same fact or truth. But the last, instead of presenting the whole human family for the mind to contemplate in a mass, by the peculiar force of every, distributes them, and presents each separately and singly; and whatever is affirmed of one individual, the mind instantaneously transfers to the whole human race.
Each relates to two or more persons or things, and signifies either of the two, or every one of any number taken separately.
(Every relates to several persons or things, and signities each one of them all taken separately,
Either relates to two persons or things taken separately, and signifies the one or the other. “ Either of the three,” is an improper expression. It should be, “any of the three.")
Neither imports not tither ; that is, not one nor the other; as, “ Neither of my friends was there.” When an allusion is made to more than two, none shouid be used instead of neither; as, “ None of my friends was there."
II. The demonstrative are those which precisely point out the subject to which they relate. List: this and that, and their plurals, these and those, and former and latter; as, “This is true charity ; that is only its image.”
There is but a slight shade of difference in the meaning and application of the and that. When reference is made to a particular book, we say, “Take the book ;” but when we wish to be very pointed and precise, we say, " Take that book ;” or, if it be near by, “Take this book." You perceive, then, that these demonstratives have all the force of the definite article, and a little more.
This and these refer to the nearest persons or things, that and those to the most distant; as, “ These goods are superiow to those.” This and these indicate the latter, or last mentioned; that and those, the former, or first men. tioned; as,
“Both wealth and poverty are temptations; the tends to excite pride, this, discontent."
“ Some place the bliss in action, somc in ease;
“ Those call it pleasure, and contentment, these.” They, those. As it is the office of the personal they to represent a noun previously introduced to our notice, there appears to be a slight departure from analogy in the following application of it: “ They who seek after wisdom, are sure to find her: They that sow in tears, soinetimes reap in joy." This usage, however, is well cstablished, and they, in such constructions, is generally employed in proference to those.
III. 'The indefinite are those which express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner. List : some, other, any, one, all, such, both, same, another, one. Of these, one and other are de
clined like nouns. Another is declined, but wants the plural.
The indefinite adjectives, like the indefinite article, leave the meaning unfixed, or, in some degree, vague. With a slight shade of difference in meaning, we say, Give me a paper, one paper, any paper, some paper, and so on. Though these words restrict the meaning of the noun, they do not fix it to a particular object. We therefore call them indefinite.
These adjectives, or adjective pronouns, frequently belong to nouns understood, in which situation They should be parsed accordingly; as,“ You may take either; He is pleased with this book, but dislikes that (book;) All (men) save
sinned, but some (men) have repented,
The words one, other, and none, are used in both numbers; and when they stand for nouns, they are not adjectives, but indefinite pronouns ; as, “ The great ones of the world have their failings;" “ Some men increase in wealth, while others decrease;" 5 None escape." The word "
,” in the preceding example, does not belong to a noun understood. If it did, we could supply the
The meaning is riot “the great one men, nor ones men,” therefore one is not an adjective pronoun; but the meaning is, “ The great men of the world,” therefore ones is a pro noun of the indefinite kind, representing the noun men under stood, and it ought to be parsed like a personal pronoun. The word others, in the next example, is a compound pronoun, equivalent to other men; and should be parsed like mine, thine, gc. See Note 4th, page
100. I will now parse two pronouns, and then present some exam. ples for you to analyze. If, in parsing the following exercises, you should be at a loss for definitions and rules, please to refer to the compendium. But before you proceed, you may commit the following
SYSTEMATICK ORDER OF PARSING. The order of parsing an ADJECTIVE PRONOUN, is —an adjective pronoun, and why?-distributive, demonstrative, or indefinite, and why ?-to what noun does it belong, or with what does it agree ?-Rule. 6 One man instructs inany
others." One is an adjective pronoun, or specifying adjective, it speci
fically points out a noun-indefinite, it expresses its subject in an indefinite or general manner, and belongs to the noun man," according to · Rule 19. Adjective pronouns belong to nouns, expressed or understood
Othere is a compound pronoun, including both an adjective pronoun and a noun, and is equivalent to other iten. Olher is an adjective pronoun, it is used specifically to describe its noun-indefinite, it expresses its subject in an indefinite manner, and belongs to men : Rule 19. (Repeat the rule.) Men is a noun, a name denoting persons-cominon, &c. (parse it in full ;) and in the objective case, it is the object of the action expressed by the transitive verb “instructs,” and gov. by it: Rule 20. Active-transitive verbs, &c.
6. Those books are inine." Those is an adjective pronoun, it specifies what noun is referred to-demonstrative, it precisely points out the subject to which it relates—and agrees with the noun “ books" in the plural number, according to Note 1, under Rule 19. (Adjective pronouns must agree in number with their nouns.
Mine is a compound personal pronoun, including both the possessor and the thing possessed, and is equivalent to my books. My is a pron. a word used instead of a noun-personal, it stands for the name of the person speaking—first person, it denotes the speaker-sing. number, it implies but one--and in the poss. case, it denotes possession, and is gov. by “ books," according to Rule 12. (Repeat the Rule, and decline the pronoun.) Books is a noun, the name of a thing--common, &c. (parse it in full ;)—and in the nominative case after “are," ac cording to Rule 21. The verb to be admits the same case after it as before il.
EXERCISES IN PARSING. Each individual fills a space in creation. Every man helps a little. These men rank
among the great ones of the world. That book belongs to the tutor, this belongs to me.
Some men labour, others labour not; the former increase in wealtn, tho latter decrease. The boy wounded the old bird, and stole the young ones.
None performs his duty too well. None of those poor wretches complain of their miserable lot.
Note. In parsing the distributive pronominal adjectives, Note 2, under Rult 19, should be applied.
UJI. OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. RELATIVE PRONOUNS are (such as relate, in general, to some word or phrase going before, which
is called the antecedent. They are who, which, and that.)
The word antecedent comes from the two Latin words, ante, before, and cedo, to go) Llence you perceive, that antecedent means going before ;-fhus, “The man is happy who lives virtuously;) This is the lady who relieved my wants ; Thou who lovest wisdom, &c. We who speak from experience,” &c. The relative who, in these sentences, relates to the several words, inan, lady, thou, and we, which words, you observe, come before the relative: they are, therefore,. properly called antecedents.
The relative is not varied on account of gender, person, or number, like a personal pronoun) When we use a personal pronoun, in speaking of a man, we say he, and of a woman, she ; in speaking of one person or thing, we use a singular pronoun, of more than one, a plural, and so on ; but there is no such variation of the relative. Who, in the first of the preceding examples, relates to an antecedent of the mas. gend. third pers. sing.; in the second, the antecedent is of the fem. gend. ; in the third, it is of the second pers. ; and in the fourth, it is of the first pers. plur. num. ; and, yet, the relative is in tho same form in each example. Hence you perceive, that the re lative has no peculiar form to denote its gend. pers. and numb. but it always agrees with its antecedent in sense. Thus, when I say, The man who writes, who is masculine gend. and sing. ; but when I say, The ladies who write, who is feminine, and plural. In order to ascertain the gend. pers. and numb. of the relative, you must always look at its antecedent.
WHO, Which, and That. Who is applied to persons, which to things and brutes ; as, “ He is a friend who is faithful in adversity ; The bird which sung so sweetly, is flown"; "This is the tree which produces no fruit”
That is often used as a relative, to prevent the loo frequent repetition of who and which. It is applied both to persons and things; as, “ He that acts wisely, deserves praise; Modesty is a quality that highly adorns a woman.”
NOTES. 1. Who should never be applied in animals. The following application of it is erroneous:-“ He is like a beast w prey, who destroys without pity.” It should be, that destroys &c
2. Who should not be applied to children. It is incorrect to say, "The child whom we have just seen," &c. It should be, " The child that we bave just seen."
3. Which may be applied to persons when we wish to distio uish ono por: son of two, or a particular person among a number of others; as," IVhich of the two ? Which of them is he
4. That, in preference to who or which, is appiied to persons when they are qualified by an adjective in the superlative degree, or by the pronospinal adjective same; as, " Charles XII., king of Sweden, was one of the greatest madmen that the world ever saw ;-He is the sanie man that we saw before."
5. That is employed after the interrogative who, in cascs like the followingi "Who that has any sense of religion, would have argued thus ?”
When the word ever or soever is annexed to a relative pronoun, the combination is called a compound pronoun; as, whoever or whosoever, which
ever or whichsoever, whatever or whatsoever
DECLENSION OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS
66 Is there any
SINGULAR AND PLURAL.
whomever. 66 whosoever,
whosesoever, whomsoever. IVhich and thalare indeclinable) except that those is some, times used as the possessive case of which l; as, other doctrine whose followers are punished ;" that is, ihe fol. lowers of which are punished. The use of this license has obtained among our best writers ; but the construction is not to be recommended, for it is a departure from a plain principle of grammar, namely, who, whose, wnum, in their applications, should be confined to rational beings.
That may be used as a pronoun, an adjective, and a conjunction, depending on the oflice which it performs in the sentence,
That is a relative only when it can be changed to who orwhich without destroying the sense; as, “ They That (who) reprove us, may be our best friends; From every thing that (which) you see, derive instruction." That is a demonstrative adjective, when it belongs to, or points out, some particular noun, either expressed or implied; as, “ Return that book; That belongs to me: Give me tnat.” When that is neither a relative nor an adjective pronoun, it is a conjunction; as, “ Take care that every day be well employed.” The word that in this last sentence, can not be changed to acho or wrich without destroying the sense, therefore you
know it is not a relative pronoun; neither does it point out any particular noun, for which reason you know it is not an adjective pranoru; but it coinects thie sentence, there. fore it is a conjunch in.