« PreviousContinue »
pound relative; he, the antecedent part, is nominative to “ will behold.' Take agrces with you understood. Forsake is in the infinitive mood after “ see :" Rule 25.
REMARKS ON RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Which sometimes relates to a member of a sentence, or to a whole sen tence, for its antecedent: as, “We are required to fear God and keep his commandments, which is the whole duty of inan." What is the whole duty of man? "To fear God and keep his commandments:" therefore, this phrase is the antecedent to which.
The conjunction as when it follows such, many, or same, is frequently de nominated a relative pronoun; as, “I ain pleased with such as have a refined taste ” that is, with those who, or them who have, &c. “Let such as presume to advise others, look well to their own conduct;" that is, Let those, or them who presume, &c. “As many as were ordained to eternal life, believed;" that is, they, those, or all who were ordained, believed. u He exhibited the same testimonials as were adduced on a former occasion;" that is, those testimonials which were adduced, &c. But, in examples like these, if we supply the ellipsis which a critical analysis requires us to do, as will be found to be a conjunction; thus, “I am pleased with such persons, as those persons are who have a refined taste; Let such persons, as those persons are who presume," &a
QUESTIONS NOT ANSWERED IN PARSING.
From what words is the term pronoun derived ?- Do pronouns always avoid the repetition of nouns ?-Name the three kinds of pronouns.-What distinguishes the personal from the relative pronouns ?—How many personal pronouns are there ? -Repeat them.-What belong to pronouns?-Is gender applied to all the personal pronouns !--To which of them is it applied ?---Which of the personal pronouns have no peculiar termination to denote their gender ?—How many persons have pronouns ?-Speak them in their different persons.-How many numbers have pronouns ?-How many cases ?—What are they?--Decline all the personal pronouns. When self is added to the personal pronouns, what are they called, and how are they used ?—When is you singular in sense ?—Is it ever singular in form ?—Why are the words, my, thy, his, her, our, your, their, called personal pronouns ?-Why are the words, mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, denominated compound pers. pron.?-How do you parse these compounds ?-What is said rothers ?-Repeat the order of parsing a personal pronoun.What rule do you apply in paising a pronoun of the first person, and in the nom. case ?-What Rule when the pronoun is in the possessive case ?-What Rules apply in parsing personal pronouns of the second and third person ?- What Rules in parsing the compounds, yours, ous, mine, &c.?—What is said of the pronoun it?
What are adjective pronouns !---Name the three kinds. -Wliat does each relate to?--To what does every relate } --To what does either relate ?- What does ncither import :
To what do this and these refer --Give examples.-To what do that and those refer?-Give examples.—Repeat all the adjective pronouns. When adj. pronouns belong to nouns understood, how are they parsed ?-- When they stand for, or represent nouns, what are they called ?-Give examples. -Repeat the order of parsing an adj. pronoun.--What Rule do you apply in parsing the indefinite adjective pronouns ? What Notes, ir parsing the distributives and demonstratives ?. 7 What are relative pronouns ?—Repeat them.-Froin what words is the term antecedent derived ?--What does antecedent mean?-Are relatives varied on account of gender, person, or number ?—To what are who and which applied ?- To what is that applied ?-Should who ever be applied to irrational beings or children ?-In what instances may which be applied to persons ?- Decline the rel. pronouns.-Can which and that be declined ? Is that ever used as three parts of speech ?--Give examples.-What part of speech is the word what ?-Is what ever used as three kinds of a pronoun?—Give examples.-What is said of whoever?—What words are used as interrogative pronouns?--Give examples.-When are the words, what, which, and that, called adj. pron.?-When are they called interrogative pronominal adjectives ?-What is said of whatever and whichever ?—Is what ever used as an interjection ?---Give examples.--Repeat the order of parsing a rel. pron:- What Rules do you apply in parsing a relative?-What Rules in parsing a com pound relative ?—What Rules in parsing an interrogative ?Does the relative which ever relate to a sentence for its antecedent ?—When does the conjunction as become a relative – Give examples
EXERCISES IN FALSE SYNTAX. Note 1, to Rule 13. When a noun or pronoun is the sub ject of a verb, it must be in the nominative case.
Who will go ? Him and I. How does thee do? Is thee well?
“Him and I;" not proper, because the pronoun him is the subject of the verb will go understood, therefore him should be in the nominative case, he, according to the above Note. (Repeat the Note.) Him and I are connect ed by the conjunction and, and him is in the obj. case, and I in the nom., therefore Rule 33d, is violated. (Repeat the Rule.) In the second and third examples, thee should be thou, according to the Nore. The verbs, does and is, are of the third person, and the nom. thou is second, for which reason the verbs should be of the second person, dost do and art, agreeably to Rule 4. You may correct the other examples, four times over.
FALSE SYNTAX. Him
and me went to town yesterday. Thee must be atten tive. Him wbo is careless, will not improve. They can writo
as well as me. This is the man whom was expected. Her and I deserve esteeri. I have made greater proficiency than him. Whom, of all my acquaintances, do you think was there. Whom, for the sake of his important services, had an office of honour bestowed upon him.
Note 2, to Rule 13. Personal pronouns being used to sup. ply the place of nouns, should not be employed in the same member of the sentence with the noun which they represent.
FALSE SYNTAX. The men they are there. I saw him the king. Our cause it is just. Many words they darken speech. That noble gene. ral who had yained so many victories, he died, at last, in prison. Who, instead of going about doing good, they are continually doing evil.
In each of the preceding examples, the personal pronoun should be omitted, according to Note 2.
Note 3, to Rule 13. A personal pronoun in the objective casc, should not be used instead of these and those.
FALSE SYNTAX. Kemove them papers from the desk. Give me them books. Give them men their discharge. Observe them three there. Which of then two persons deserves most credit.
In all these examples, those should be used in place of them. The use of the personal, thein, in such constructicns, presents two objectives after one verb or preposition. This is a solecism which may be avoided by employing an adjective pronoun in its stead.
(A CONJUNCTION is a part of speech that is chiefly used to connect sentences, joining two or more simple sentences into one compound sentence: it sometimes connects only words; as, - Thoi and he are happy, because you are good."
Conjunctions are those parts of language, which, by joining sentences in different ways, mark the connexions and various dependances of human thought. They belong to language only in its refined state.
The term CONJUNCTION comes (from the two Latin words, con, which signifies together, and jungo, to join) A conjunction, then, is a word that conjoins, or joins together something. fore you can fully comprehend the nature and office of this sort of words, it is requisite that you should know what is meant by a sentence, a simple sentence, and a compound sentence, for conjunctions are chiefly used to connect sentences..
A SENTENCE is an assemblage of words forming complete sense,
A SIMPLE SENTENCE contains but one subject, or nominative, and one verb which agrees with ahat nominative; as, “Wheat grows in the field.)
You perceive that this sentence contains several words besides the nominative and the verb, and you will often see a simplosentence containing many parts of speech; but, if it has only one nominative and one finite verb, (that is, a verb not in the infinitive mood,) it is a simple sentence, though it is longer than many compound sentences.
A COMPOUND SENTENCE is composed of two or more simple sentences connected together; as, " Wheat grows in the field, and men reap it.”
This sentence is compound, because it is formed of two sim ple sentences joined together by the word and; which word, on account of its connecting power, is called a conjunction. If we write this sentence without the conjunction, it becomes two simple sentences: thus, “Wheat grows in the field. Men reap
it." The nature and importance of the conjunction, are easily illustrated. . After expressing one thought or sentiment, you know we frequently wish to add another, or several others, which are closely connected with it. We generally effect this addition by means of the conjunction: thus, “The Georgians cultivate rice and cotton;" that is, “They cultivate rice add cotton."
This sentence is compound, and without the use of the conjunction, it would be written in two separate, simple sentences: thus, “ The Georgians cultivate rice. They cultivate cotton." The conjunction, though chiefly used to connect sentences, sometimes connects only words ; in which capacity it is nearly allied to the preposition; as, “ The sun and (add) the planets constitute the solar system.” In this, which is a simple sentence, and connects two words.
A few more examples will illustrate the nature, and exhibit the use of this part of speech so clearly, as to enable you fülpg to comprehend it. The following simple sentences and members of sentences, have no relation to each other until they are connected by conjunctions. He labours harder-more successfully-I do. That inan is healthy—he is temperate. By filling up the vacancies in these sentences with conjunctions, you will see the importance of this sort of words : thus, He labours harder and more successfully than I do. That man is healthy because he is temperate.
Conjunctions are divided into two sorts, the Copulative and the Disjunctivel
I. The Conjunction Copulative serves to connect and continue a sentence by joining on a member which expresses an addition, a supposition, or a cause; as,
“ Two and three are five; I will go if he will accompany me; You are happy because you are good.
In the first of these examples, and joins on a word that expresses an addition; in the second, if connects a member that implies a supposition or condition ; and in the third, because con nects a member that expresses a cause.
II. The Conjunction Disjunctive serves to connect and continue a sentence by joining on a member that expresses opposition of meaning ; as, They came with her, but they went away without her."
But joins on a member of this sentence which expresses, not only something added, but, also, opposition of meaning,
The principal conjunctions may be known by the following lists, which you may now commit to memory. Some words in these lists, are, however, frequently used as adverbs, and sometimes as prepositions; but if you study well the nature of all the different sorts of words, you cannot be at a loss to tell the part of speech of any word in the language.
PHILOSOPHICAL NOTES. On scientifick principles, our connectives, commonly denominated preposi. tions and conjunctions, are but one part of speech, the distinction between them being merely technical. Some conjunctions unite only words, and some prepositions connect sentences. They are derived from nouns and verbs ; and the time has been, when, perhaps, in our language, they did not perform the office of connectives.
“I wish you to believe, that I would not wilfully hurt a fly.” Here, in the