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LISTS OF THE CONJUNCTIONS. Copulative. And, if, that, both, then, since, for because, therefore, wherefore, provided, besides

Disjunctive. But, or, nor, as, than, lest, though, unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding, nevertheless, except, whether, whereas, as well as.

Some conjunctions are followed by corresponding conjunc. tions, so that, in the subsequent member of the sentence, the latter answers to the fornier; as,

I. Though-yet or nevertheless; as, “ Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor."

2. Whether-or; as, " Whether he will go, or not, I cannot tell.” It is improper to say,

" Whether he will go or no.3. Either-or; as, “I will either send it, or bring it myself.”

4. Neither-nor; as, “Neither thou nor I can coniprehend it." 5. Al-AS ; as,

" She is as amiable as her sister.” 6. As--S0; as,

As the stars, so shall thy seed be." 7. So-as; as,

“ To see thy glory, so as I have seen thee in the sanctuary

8. So--that; as, “He became so vair., that every one dis liked him.”

NOTES. 1. Some conjunctions are used to connect simple sentences only, and form them into compound sentences ; such as, further, again, besides, &c. Others are employed to connect simple members only, so as to make them compound meinbers; such as, than, lest, siniess, that, so that, if, though, yet, because, as well as, &c. But, and, therefore, or, nor, for, &c., connect either whole sentences, or simple members.

2. Relative pronouns, as well as conjunctions, serve to connect sentences; as, “ Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord, and keepeth his command ments.” opinion of H. Tooke, our modern conjunction that, is merely a deinonstrative adjective, in a disguised form; and he attempts to prove it by the following resolution : “I would not wi/fully hurt a fly. I wish you to believe that [nssertion.”] Now, if we admit, thai that is an adjective in the latter construction, it does not necessarily follow, that it is the same part of speech, nor that its associated meaning is precisely the same, in the former construction, Instead of expressing our ideas in two detached sentences, by the former phraseology we have a quicker and closer transition of thought, and both the mode of employing that, and its inferential meaning, are changed. Moreover, if we examine the meaning of each of these constructions, taken as a whole, we shall find, that they do not both convey the same ideas. By the latter, I assert, positively, that “I would not wilfully hurt a fly;" whereas, by the foriner, I merely wish you to believe that “I would not wilsully hurt a By;" but I do not affirin that as a fact. That being the past part, of thean, to get, take, assume, by rendering it as

You will now please to turn back and read this lecture four or five times over; and then, after committing the following order, you may parse the subsequent exercises.

SYSTEMATICK ORDER OF PARSING. The order of parsing a CONJUNCTION, is--a conjunction, and why?- copulative or disjunctive, and why?-_what does it connect?

“Wisdom and virtue form the good man's character." And is a conjunction, a word that is chiefly used to connect sentences; but in this example it connects only words--copulative, it serves to connect and continue the sentence by joining on a member which expresses an addition—it connects the words " wisdom and virtue.”

IVisdom is a noun, the name of a thing—(You may parse it in full.) — Wisdom is one of the nominatives to the verb " form.”

Virtue is a noun, the name, &c.—(Parse it in full:)—and in the nom. case to the verb “ form," and connected to the noun “wisdom" by and, according to

RULE 33. Conjunctions connect nouns and pronouns in the

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Forın is a verb, a word which signifies to do, &c.of the third person, plural, because its two nominatives, “ wisdom and vir tue," are connected by a copulative conjunction, agreeably to

Rule 8. Two or more nouns in the singular number, joined by copulative conjunctions, must have verbs, nouns, and pronouns agreeing with them in the plural.

“ Wisdomn or folly governs us." Or is a conjunction, a word that is chiefly used to connect sentences: it sometimes connects words-disjunctive, it serves not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to join on a member which expresses opposition of ineaning—itconnects the nouns “ wisdom and folly.” a paticiple, instead of an adjective, we should come nearer to its primitive character. Thus," I would not wilfully hurt a fly. I wish you to believe the assumed (fact or statement ;] or, the fact assumed or taken."

If, (formerly written gif, give, gin,) as previously stated, is the imperative of the Anglo-Saxont verb gifan, to give. In imitation of Horne Tooke, some of our modern philosophical writers are inclined to teach pupils to render it as a verb. Thus, “I will go, if he will accompany me:"“He will accomapany me. Grant-give that (fact] I will go." For the purpose of ascertaining the primitive meaning of this word, i have no objection to such a reso lution; but, by it, do we get the exact meaning and force or if as it is apa plied in our modern, refined state of the language? I trow not. But, admitting we do, does this prove that such a mode of resolving sentences can be advantagecusly adopted by learners in common schools ? I presume it can

Governs is a verb, a word that signifies, &c.-of the third person, singular number, agreeing with “wisdomer folly,"according to

RULE 9. Two or more nouns singular, joined by disjunctive conjunctions, must have verbs, nouns, and pronouns agreeing with thein in the singular.

If you reflect, for a few moments, on the meaning of the last two Rules presented, you will see, at once, their propriety and importance. For example ; in the sentence, “Orlando and Thomas, who study their lessons, make rapid progress," you notice that the two singular nouns, Orlando and Thomas, are connected by the copulative conjunction and, therefore the verb make, which agrees with them, is plural, because it expresses the action of both its nominatives or actors. And you observe, too, that the pronouns who and their, and the noun lessons, are plural, agreeing with the nouns Orlando and Thomas, according to RULE 8. The verb study is plural, agreeing with who, according to RULE 4.

But let us connect these two nouns by a disjunctive conjunc tion, and see how the sentence will read : “Orlando or Thomas, who studies his lesson, makes rapid progress.” Now, you perceive, that a different construction takes place, for the latter expression does not imply, that Orlando and Thomas, both study and make rapid progress; but it asserts, that either the one or the other studies, and makes rapid progress. Hence the verb makes is singular, because it expresses the action of the one or the other of its nominatives. And you observe, too, that the pronouns who and his, and the noun lesson, are likewise in the singular, agreeing with Orlando or Thomas, agreeably to RULE 9. Studies is also singular, agreeing with who, according to RULE 4.

not be denied, that instead of teaching the learner to express himself correctly in modern English, such a resolution is merely making him familiar with an ancient and barbarous constrnction which modern retinement has rejected. Our forefathers, I admit, who were governed by those laws of necessity which compel all nations in the early and rude state of their language, to express themselves in short, detached sentences, employed if as a verb when they used the following circumlocution “My son will reform. Give that fact. I will forgive him." But in the present, improved state of our language, by using if as a conjunction, (for I maintain that it is one,) we express the same thought more briefly; and our modern mode of expression has, too, a decisive advantage over the ancient, not only in point of elegance, but also in perspicuity and force. In Scotland and the north of England, some people still make use of gin, a contraction of given : thus, 'I will pardon my son, gin he reform. But who will contend, that they speak pure English

But perhaps the advocates of what they call a philosophical development of language, will say, that by their resolution of sentences, they njerely sup

EXERCISES IN PARSING. Joseph and his brother reside in New-York. The sun, moon, and stars, admonish us of a superiour and superintending Power I respect my friend, because he is upright and obliging. Henry and William, who obey their teacher, improve rapidly. Henry or William, who obeys his teacher, improves very fast. Neither rank nor possession makes the guilty mind happy. Wisdom, virtue, and meekness, form the good man's happiness and interest : they support him in adversity, and comfort him in prosperity. Man is a little lower than the angels. The United States, as justly as Great Britain, can now boast of their literary institutions.

Note. The verb form is plural, and agrees with three nouns singular, connected hy copulative conjunctions, according to Rule 8. The verb corno fort agrees with they for its nominative. It is connected to support by the conjunction and, agreeably to Rule 34. Angels is nom. to are understood and Great Briiain is nom. to can boast understood, according to Rule 35.

REMARKS ON CONJUNCTIONS AND PREPOSITIONS. The same word is occasionally employed, either as a conjunction, an adrerb, or a preposition. “I submitted, for it was in vain to resist ;' in this example, for is a conjunction, because it counects the two members of a compound sentence. In the next it is a preposition, and governs victory in the objective case: “He contended for victory only.”

In the first of the following sentences, since is a conjunction; in the se. cond, it is a preposition, and in the third, an adverb; " Since we must part, let us do it peaceably; I have not seen him since that time ; Our friendship commenced long since.

“ He will repent before he dies; Stand before me; Why did you not return before" (that or this time ;] in the first of these three examples, before is an adverbial conjunction, because it expresses time and connects; and in the second and third, it is a preposition.

As the words of a sentence are often transposed, so are also its members, Without attending to this circumstance, the learner may sometimes be at a bss to perceive the connecting power of a preposition or conjunction, for every preposition and every conjunction connects either words or phrases, sentences or members of sentences. Whenever a sentence begins with a preposition or conjunction, its members are transposed; as, “ In the days of Joram, king of Israel, flourished the prophet Elisha ;" If thou seek the Lord, he will be found of thee; but, if thou forsake him, he will cast thee of for ever."

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ply an ellipsis. If, by an ellipsis, they mean such a one as is necessary to the grammatical construction, I cannot accede to their assumption. In teaching grammar, as well as in other things, we ought to avoid estremes:we ought neither to pass superficialiy over an ellipsis necessary to ihe sense of a phrase, nor to put modern English to the blush, by adopting a mode of resolving sentences that would entirely change the character of our lan guage, and carry the learner back to the Vandalick age.

But comes from the Saxon verb, beon-ılan, to bc-out. “All were well but (be-out, leave-out) the stranger.” “ Man is but a reed, floating on the current of time.” Resoluticn: “Man is a reed, floating on the current of time; but fbe-out this fact) he is not a stable being."

and- aned, an'd, and, is the past part. of anenail, to add, join. A, an, ang

" When collness wraps this suffering clay,

“Ah, whither strays the inimortal mind ?ii That the words in, if, and when, in these examples, connect the members of the respective sentences to which they are attached, will obviously appear if we restore these sentences to their natural order, and bring these particles between the members which they connect : thus, " Elisha the prophet fourished in the days of Joram king of Israel 2 "The Lord will be found of thce if thou seek him; but he will cast thce os for ever if thou forsake himn :

“Ah, whither strays the immortal mind,

When coldness wraps this suffering clay ?” As an exercise on this lecture, you may now answer these


From what words is the term conjunction derived ?—What is a sentence?—What is a simple sentence?-What is a compound sentence?-Give examples.-In what respect do conjunctions and prepositions agree in their nature?-How many sorts of conjunctions are there?-Repeat the lists of conjunctions.-Repeat some conjunctions with their corresponding conjunctions.Do relative pronouns ever connect sentences ?—Repeat the or der of parsing a conjunction.—Do you apply any Rule in parsing a conjunction?-What Rule should be applied in parsing a noun or pronoun connected with another ?—What Rule in parsing a verb agreeing with two or more nouns singular, connected by a copulative conjunction ?-What Rule when the nouns are connected by a disjunctive ?-In parsing a verb conrected to another by a conjunction, what Rule do you apply?-_Is a con. junction ever used as other parts of speech?-Give examples.What is said of the words for, since, and before ?-What is said of the transposition of sentences? or one, from the same verb, points out whatever is aned, oned, or made one. And also refers to the thing that is joined to, addell to, or made one with, some other person or thing mentioned. “ Julius and Harriet will make a happy pair.” Resolution : “Julius, Harriet joined, united, or aned, will make a hapo py pair ;" i. e. Harriet maile one with Julius, will make a happy pair.

For means cause.

Because-be-cause, is a compound of the verb be, and the noun cause. retains the meaning of both; as, “I believe the maxim, for I know it to be true;"-"I believe the maxim, because I know it to be true;" i. e. the cause of my belief, be, or is, I know it to be true.

Nor is a contraction of ne or. Ne is a contraction of not, and or, of other. Nor is, not other-wise : not in the other way or manner.

Else is the imperative of alesan, unless, of onlesan, and lest, the past part. of lesan, all signifying to dismiss, release, loosen, set free. “He will be punished, unless he repent ;"_-“Unless, release, give up (the fact) le repents, he will be punished."

Though is the imperative of the Saxon verb thasigạn, to allow, and yet, of getan, to get. Yet is simply, get; ancient g is our modern y. "Though he alay me, yet will I trust in him :-Grant or allow (the fact) he slay me, gel, or rem tain (the opposite fact) I will trust in him."

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